The difference I'm talking about is easiest to describe from a self-defense curriculum, but I think applies to other approaches. I cover a pretty wide range of Arm Bar applications, for instance. I only test one (in addition to the form) - and the student gets to choose which one. I also teach a near endless number of applications that start from a basic straight punch (whether rear straight or jab, or even a formal straight punch), and don't specifically test any of them. During their testing, they'll face straight punches. I'm pretty much okay with it if their response to those doesn't touch grappling techniques (which are the only things we actually refer to as "techniques", and so the only "applications" in our vernacular). So, there's a huge curriculum that takes many years to cover. Testing is meant to check overall level, and to ensure some specific points are up to snuff, rather than to ensure they can do everything in the curriculum.