Korean terms and hangul

Kacey

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There are quite a few questions that come up about the use of Korean terms and hangul in the context of the martial arts. Since these discussions come up fairly frequently, some of them are being compiled and/or linked in this thread.

What Korean terminology (if any) do you use in your Korean MA class?

What is the difference between "kwon" and "kwan"?

How do you identify different dan ranks?

How do you read hangul? More here

What exactly is the difference between chigi and jirugi, and how do you know when to use which term?

Specific terminology in Korean, with names of text sources. More terminology here

English to Korean translation (off the MT site - NOTE: must have a browser plug-in that will show hangul, or all you'll get are ????)

TaeKwon-Do specific Korean terminology, transliterated (written phonetically in English)

"Respect" in Korean

Proper pronunciation of hangul; another here

History of hangul; more here

Korean terminology game; and another

Tang Soo Do terminology discussion

An Introduction to Korean (off the MT site)
 

exile

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Kacey, this is brilliantthe single source we've all been hoping for. Thanks very, very much for putting this together... makes me think we should have a `reference books' library on MT where this kind of encyclopaedic coverage can go.
 
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Kacey

Kacey

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Kacey, this is brilliant—the single source we've all been hoping for. Thanks very, very much for putting this together... makes me think we should have a `reference books' library on MT where this kind of encyclopaedic coverage can go.

Well, it was your idea, exile... thanks for mentioning it!
 

exile

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Well, it was your idea, exile... thanks for mentioning it!

True, but I didn't expect to see it come about so soon, or so thoroughly! This probably has all the info that anyone would ever need... great stuff, really!
 

wade

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Come on Kacey, give me a break will ya? I can only hit that damn button so many times in a given day then it's starts to get nasty with me, BUT! still, thanks, great post. :)
 

jim777

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Awesome stuff, thanks very much! Does anyone know the pronunciation of the Korean words for thirty, forty, fifty, etc? I can only ever find the Hangul characters without any pronunciation. Most of the online resources stop at ten.

Thanks in advance!

jim
 

e ship yuk

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Awesome stuff, thanks very much! Does anyone know the pronunciation of the Korean words for thirty, forty, fifty, etc? I can only ever find the Hangul characters without any pronunciation. Most of the online resources stop at ten.

Thanks in advance!

jim

Koreans use two different number systems, the native Korean numbers (hana, dul, set, etc) and the Sino-Korean numbers, based mostly on Chinese (il, e, sam, etc). Each is used for different things.

Wikipedia has a good article on Korean numbers.

In the Sino-Korean system, counting up to 99 is really easy - if you can count to 10, you can count to 99. The numbers from 1 to 10 have their own names. From 11 to 19, the numbers are formed by adding a number to ship, the word for ten - ship il is 11, ship ee is 12, ship sam is 13, etc. Numerals above these first tell you how many 10s are involved - ee ship is 20, sam ship is 30 - and then add the 1s - ee ship il is 21, ee ship ee is 22, and my user name, although spelled slightly differently, e ship yuk, is 26. The Tang Soo Do form E Ship Sa Bo is named in this way - Two Tens Four, and I believe Bo is step. So, 24 steps.

The native Korean numbers have their own words for 20, 30, etc, but otherwise form their numbers the same. I'm less familiar with them, but again the Wikipedia article does a good job of detailing them.
 

Dave Leverich

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A question from a friend on another forum that might get a more informed response here perhaps...

"I just need to clarify some issues of Korean semantics and phonology.

BTW, I'm a layperson as to linguistics; and although I do know some of the general terms (in a not-too-precise manner), I would prefer explanations that are geared toward non-experts.

Thanks.
_________________
eltenoch

The faucalized (an "esoteric" linguistics term that describes the phoneme's production) consonants in Korean are those that are written as "doubled" to their "modal" or "regular" counterparts; ex., K/G, T/D, P/B, vs. K', T', P'. Most books geared to the layperson would just describe these as the "tense" consonants."

"Thanks Dave, Very Happy

So I guess asking help in how to articulate the Korean faucalized consonants is out of the question :)
_________________
eltenoch"


Any help from our more enlightened linguists perhaps? I know I could use help with these as well.
 

MBuzzy

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열 - 10 yeol - said: yool
스물 - 20 seu-mul - said: soo muel (ue - like in sue)
서른 - 30 seo-reun - said: saw roon
마흔 - 40 ma heun - said: ma hoon
쉰 - 50 shwin - said: shwin
예순 - 60 ye sun - said: yay suen (ue - like in sue)
일흔 - 70 i rheun - said: ee roon
여든 - 80 yeo deun - said: yaw doon
아흔 - 90 a heun - said: ah hoon

Here's the tricky part....In Korean, there is no r or l. It is the same letter, depending on where it falls in the word, it can sound different, but if you try to go somewhere in between the two, you will get it. It is tough to explain unless you read hangul, but if I used an L, then it sounds closer to an L......if I used an r, it sounds closer to a t than anything.....hard to explain.
 

MBuzzy

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oh yeah....that's the OTHER number system. The Korean based number system that starts with hana, tul, set, net, etc...
 

zDom

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English has two sets, too.

Cardinal (one, two, three) and ordinal (first, second, third).

I believe (please correct me if I'm wrong) that "hanah, tul, set" are used as cardinal numbers and "il, ee, sam, sah" are used as ordinal.
 
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Kacey

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English has two sets, too.

Cardinal (one, two, three) and ordinal (first, second, third).

I believe (please correct me if I'm wrong) that "hanah, tul, set" are used as cardinal numbers and "il, ee, sam, sah" are used as ordinal.

That is my understanding as well - for both English and Korean.
 

e ship yuk

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English has two sets, too.

Cardinal (one, two, three) and ordinal (first, second, third).

I believe (please correct me if I'm wrong) that "hanah, tul, set" are used as cardinal numbers and "il, ee, sam, sah" are used as ordinal.

Pretty much. The Sino-Korean numbers are also used to tell time, and can be used to denote someone's age. The English ordinals are pretty similar, in most cases, to their cardinals, also. The Korean, not so much.
 

MBuzzy

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Actually, that is not exactly correct - and I will be the first to say that I don't fully understand the Korean number system.

Both the Sino-Korean (Chinese based; il, ee, sam, sa, oh) and Pure-Korean (hana, tul, set, net, tasot) systems are Cardinal systems, i.e. both are equivalent to 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. But they are used for different things. The pure Korean numbers are used for Counting. For example, in class, when counting repetitions, you use hana, tul, set, net. But when counting things and expressing ideas....years, months, days, currency, you use Sino-Korean....but not always. It is VERY confusing...in fact, Koreans don't always get it right and will sometimes interchange.

Telling time.......You won't belive this.......you use the Korean system for hours and the Sino Korean system for minutes.

You ALSO need to use countwords for everything....Even in telling time. Depending on what you're counting, there will be different words. For example, when counting cups, you must say chan following the number...for people, you must say myong, and those are in addition to the word for what you are counting (so it would be "people 4 persons")

The ordinal system is completely separate and also has two sets of numbers.....and those words and longer and more difficult.


OH! And get this.....there are no Pure Korean numbers above 99, so after that, it is ALSO Sino-Korean.
 

MBuzzy

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A little more....to show just how confusing this gets, here is 1-10 in both systems of Ordinal numbers...These things take FOREVER to type out with an English keyboard!!

Sino-Korean
First 제 1의 che irui
Second 제 2의 che iui
Third 제 3의 che samui
Fourth 제 4의che saui
Fifth 제 5의che oui
Sixth 제 6의che yugui
Seventh 제 7의che chirui
Eighth제 8의che parui
Ninth 제 9의che kuui
Tenth 제 10의che shipui

Pure Korean
First 첫 번째의 chot pontchaeui
Second 두번째의 tu pontchaeui
Third 세번째의 se pontchaeui
Fourth 네번째의 ne pontchaeui
Fifth 다섯번째의 tasot pontchaeui
Sixth 여섯번째의 yosot pontchaeui
Seventh 일곱 번째의 ilgop pontchaeui
Eighth 여덟번째의 yodol pontchaeui
Ninth 아홉번째의 ahop pontchaeui
Tenth 열번째의 yol pontchaeui
 

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