If I may offer some information in regards to L.E. and how we train with firearms since it was brought up. We train to 'fire for maximum effect to stop the threat'. In most states it is illegal to 'shoot to wound' or to fire warning shots. Here is the reason(s); People do not react in real life to bullet wounds the way Hollywood portrays. They do not fly back 6 feet. In real life, they only rarely fall down and if so, it is a usually a psychological reaction not a physiological reaction. In other words, they choose to fall down rather than the bullet making them fall down. To further clarify, a bullet 'can' make a person fall down due to a CNS shot or loss of BP (which takes quite a bit of time and the attacker is usually still able to continue the attack). But a bullet cannot, in and of itself, physically make someone fall down due to kinetic energy. There isn't enough 'energy' to accomplish this, even from rifle rounds. One needs to fire for COM (center of mass) where the vital organs are located to maximize the potential for a CNS shot or rapid loss of BP. One needs to be on target with as many follow up shots as are needed to stop the threat. The ammunition needs to be able to penetrate deep enough to hit the CNS or a vital organ. A person is responsible for each and every shot fired. A 'warning shot' means a round is going to be going somewhere other than the intended target. A 'shot to wound' may work on T.V. or the movies, but it usually requires an attempt to shoot the arms or legs which are smaller, moving targets. To be able to successfully accomplish this, while under duress is dramatically less than shooting the largest portion of the human body. Again, we are responsible for every round fired. I'm a senior member of several professional firearm forums. The following thread may be of assistance to anyone wishing further, or more in-depth information http://excoboard.com/martialwarrior/148268/1784064 Agreed. I've posted many times before that the application of force needs to be appropriate to the situation. It needs to take into account subject/attacker factors. Is the altercation a drunk uncle at the family BBQ? Different response level than that of an attacker attempting to cause as much damage to you as possible in the shortest amount of time. Keeping in mind (statistic from L.E. training circles based upon real world data) that the 'average' altercation lasts 7 seconds with injury occurring in the first 3 seconds (in regards to physical altercations such as muggings, rape, domestics etc). An important consideration is that MINIMAL force may not be MINIMUM force. One of the things that I add every time I use force is the statement, 'The subject took away all of my non-force options and forced me to use force to regain control of the situation'. This can similarly be applied to the use of force applied by a private citizen. You try to avoid the conflict. If you can't avoid, you try to de-esculate. If you can't de-esculate you try to evade (if the act of disengaging does not put you at increased risk. Also many states do NOT require the citizen to retreat. These are sometimes called the Castle Doctrine [in your home] or 'Stand your ground' laws). If you can't escape/evade/disengage or the situation dictates that you can't then you are forced to use (lawful) force. As with anything, hope for the best, train for the worst.