Japanese MA Terminology

Discussion in 'Japanese Martial Arts - General' started by OnlyAnEgg, Jun 20, 2006.

  1. OnlyAnEgg

    OnlyAnEgg Senior Master

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    As a beginner, lists of common MA terms helped me quite a bit early on. Here is such a list. Corrections welcome.


    -A-

    Age
    Rising
    Age tsuki
    Rising punch
    Age uke
    Rising block
    Ago
    Chin or jaw
    Agura
    Informal sitting
    Aka
    Red
    Aka Ippon
    Red point (tournament sparring)
    Akiresu ken
    Achilles tendon
    Ana ta no catch
    (You are)Winner
    Arigato
    Thank-you
    Ashi or Ashibo
    Leg or shin
    Ashi kubi
    Ankle
    Ashi waza
    Foot techniques
    Ashi ura
    Sole of the foot
    Ashi yubi
    Toes
    Ashi zoko
    Bottom (bottom side)of foot
    Atemi
    Striking
    Atemi waza
    Striking techniques
    Awase uke
    Combination blocks






    -B-

    Budo
    Martial arts Way
    Bujutsu
    Martial arts techniques
    Bunkai
    Application of a technique
    Bushi
    Warrior class of Japan
    Bushido
    Way of the warrior






    -C-

    Choku tsuki
    Straight punch
    Chudan
    Midsection of the body






    -D-

    Dachi
    Stance
    Dan
    Black belt rank
    De ashi barai
    Forward foot sweep
    Denzook
    No count
    Do
    The way
    Dojo
    Martial arts training hall, literally "Place of the Way
    Dokko
    Mastoids
    Domo Arigato
    Thank-you






    -E-

    Embusen
    Floor pattern of Kata
    Empi
    Elbow
    Empi uchi
    Elbow strike






    -F-

    Fukushin
    Judge
    Fukuto
    Outside, lower thigh
    Fumikomi
    Stamping kick
    Fushi
    Knucle, joint






    -G-

    Ganmen
    Face
    Gai wan
    Outer arm
    Gan or Gansei
    Eye
    Gankaku Dachi
    Crane stance - also Tsuru ashi or Sagi ashi dachi
    Ganmen
    Head, face
    Gasshuku
    Special Training Camp
    Gatame
    Hold, arm bar
    Geashi
    Reversal
    Gedan
    Lower part of the body
    Gedan barai
    Low block
    Gen no sen
    Allow one to attack, set up to counter-attack
    Geri
    Kick
    Gi
    Karate Uniform
    Go
    Five
    Gyaku
    Reverse, reversal
    Gyaku tsuki
    Reverse punch






    -H-

    Ha
    Tooth
    Hada
    Skin
    Haguki
    Gums
    Hae
    Lungs
    Haibu
    Back (back rib area)
    Haimen
    Back or rear side
    Hana
    Nose
    Hachi
    Eight
    Hachiji dachi
    Natural stance
    Hai
    Yes
    Haishu
    Back of the hand
    Haisoku
    Instep
    Haito
    Ridge hand, inner blade of hand
    Hai wan
    Back of the arm
    Hajime
    Begin
    Hanshi
    Master - Usually the highest ranking in the organization
    Hansoku
    Foul
    Hantei
    Decision
    Hara
    Abdomen
    Harai
    Sweep
    Hidari
    Left
    Hifu
    Skin
    Hiji
    Elbow
    Hitai
    Forehead
    Hiza
    Knee
    Honbu
    Headquarters






    -I-

    Ibuki
    Controlled breathing
    Ichi
    One
    Ippon
    Point (as in scoring)
    Ippon Kumite
    One-step sparring
    Iyeh
    No






    -J-

    Jikan
    Time - as in tournaments
    Jinzo
    Kidney
    Jiu Kumite
    Freestyle sparring
    Jodan
    Head or upper area
    Jogai
    Out of bounds - tournaments
    Ju
    Ten
    Ju Dachi
    Free Fighting stance
    Juji
    Cross






    -K-

    Kache
    Winner (Tournament)
    Kagi
    Hooking
    Kakushin waza
    Hidden technique
    Kaisho
    Open hand
    Kakato
    Heel
    Kakuto
    Bent wrist
    Kake
    Application of the technique
    Kakiwake uke
    Pushing through block
    Kamae
    Combative posture
    Kami or Ke
    Hair
    Kansetsu
    Joint lock
    Kanzo
    Liver
    Kappo
    Resuscitating (from knock out)
    Kara
    Empty
    Karada
    Body or physique
    Karate
    Empty hand, or weaponless
    Karateka
    One who practices karate
    Kasumi
    Temple (side of the head)
    Kata
    Pre-arranged form or techniques
    Keage
    Snap kick
    Katame
    Grappling
    Keibu
    Neck
    Keito uke
    Chicken head block
    Kekome
    Thrust kick
    Kensei
    Technique with silent kiai
    Kentsui uke (tettsui uke)
    Hammer fist block
    Keri waza
    Kicking techniques
    Ketto
    Blood
    Ki
    Life force - mind - spirit
    Kiai
    Shout of focus
    Kihon
    Basic technique
    Kioskite
    Attention
    Kibadachi
    Straddle (horse) stance
    Kime
    Focus
    Kingeri
    Groin kick
    Kinniku
    Muscles
    Kinteki
    Testicles
    Kizami tsuki
    Jab punch
    Kohai
    A student junior to one's self
    Kokutsudachi
    Backstance
    Koken
    Wrist, bent wrist
    Kon bon wa
    Good evening (after daylight)
    Konnichi wa
    Good evening (during daylight)
    Kosa uke
    Crossed block
    Koshi
    Ball of foot
    Ku
    Nine
    Kuchi
    Mouth
    Kubodo
    Weapons training
    Kudasai
    Please (if you please)
    Kudsurogu
    Relax or rest
    Kumiuchi
    Grappling
    Kumite
    Sparring
    Kyobu
    Chest
    Kyu
    Colored belt rank






    -M-

    Ma-ai
    Distancing
    Mae
    Front
    Mae geri
    Front kick
    Mae geri keage
    Front snap kick
    Mae geri kekomi
    Front thrust kick
    Mae tobi geri
    Jump front kick
    Makiwara
    Striking board
    Makoto
    Absolute sincerity, from a pure open mind
    Manabu
    Learning by imitating
    Matte
    Wait
    Mawashi geri
    Roundhouse kick
    Mawashi tsuki
    Roundhouse punch, hook punch
    Mawatte, mawri, mawaru
    Turn
    Me
    Eye
    Men
    Face
    Migi
    Right (side)
    Mikazuki
    Crescent
    Mikazuki geri
    Crescent kick
    Mimi
    Ears
    Mo Ichido
    Once again
    Mokuso
    Contemplation, meditation
    Morote uke
    Augmented block
    Mudansha
    Student without black belt rank
    Mune
    Chest
    Mushin
    No mind - to act (or adapt) without thinking
    Musubi Dachi
    Attention stance
    Myaku
    Pulse






    -N-

    Naifanchi, Naihanchi Dachi
    Straddle stance
    Nai wan
    Inner arm
    Namiashi
    Sweep avoidance
    Neko
    Cat
    Nekoashidachi
    Cat stance
    Ni
    Two
    Nidan tobi geri
    Double jump kick
    Nodo
    Throat
    Nukite
    Spear hand






    -O-

    Obi
    Belt
    Ohiyo gozaimasu
    Good Morning
    Oi tsuki
    Lunge punch
    Okuri ashi barai
    Foot sweep
    Onigaishimasu
    Please teach me
    Osoto
    Outside
    Osoto Uke
    Outside (forearm) block
    Osu
    Greetings
    Oswate
    Sit down
    Otate
    Stand up
    Oyasumi nasai
    Good night (departure)
    Oyo waza
    Application interpreted from kata techniques






    -R-

    Rei
    Bow
    Reigi or reishiki
    Etiquette
    Rensei
    Practise tournament - critique
    Renshi
    Expert instructor, one who has mastered himself
    Rokkotsu
    Rib
    Roku
    Six
    Ryu
    School of martial arts






    -S-

    Sakotsu
    Collar bone
    San
    Three
    Sanchin dachi
    Hourglass stance
    Satori
    Enlightenment
    Sebone
    Backbone, spine
    Seiryuto
    Base of the ridge hand
    Seiza
    Kneeling/Sitting position
    Sempai
    Senior
    Senaka
    The back
    Sen no sen
    Attack at the exact moment of your opponents attack
    Sensei
    Teacher
    Seoi
    Shoulder
    Seridsu
    Line up
    Shiai
    Tournament
    Shihan
    Master Instructor
    Shikkaku
    Disqualification
    Shin, Shinzo
    Heart
    Shintai
    Body
    Shiri
    Buttocks
    Shita
    Tongue
    Shizen dachi
    Sparring stance
    Sho
    Palm of hand
    Shomen
    To the front
    Shofu
    Side of neck
    Shuto
    Knife hand
    Shuto uchi
    Knife hand strike
    Shuto uke
    Knife hand block
    Sokko
    Top of the foot
    Sokuto
    Edge of the foot
    Soru
    Sit down (or kneel)
    Soto
    Outside
    Soto ude uke (Osoto uke)
    Outside forearm block
    Suigetsu
    Solar-plexis
    Suwari
    Sit






    -T-

    Tai
    Body
    Taikaky
    Build or physique
    Taisabaki
    Body twisting evasion movements
    Tanden
    Navel
    Tatte
    Stand up
    Te
    Hand
    Te gatana uke (shuto uke)
    Hand sword block
    Teisho
    Palm heel
    Tenshin
    Moving, shifting
    Tenshin Sho
    Divine intervention
    Tettsui
    Hammer fist
    Tome
    Return to original position
    Tomoe
    Stomach
    Tsukami waza
    Catching technique
    Tsuki
    Punch or fist
    Tuite
    Grappling skills






    -U-

    Uchi
    Inner
    Ude
    Forearm
    Ude uki
    Forearm block
    Uke
    Block
    Ukemi waza
    Breakfall techniques
    Uraken (reiken) uchi
    Back fist strike
    Uratsuki
    Close punch
    Ushiro
    Rear
    Ushiro geri
    Back kick






    -W-

    Wado
    Way of Peace and Harmony
    Wan
    Arm
    Waza
    Technique
    Wazari
    Half point






    -Y-

    Yama
    Mountain
    Yamabushi
    Mountain warriors
    Yawara
    Control
    Yame
    Stop
    Yasumi
    Rest
    Yobo
    Face
    Yodansha
    One who is a black belt
    Yoi
    Ready
    Yoko
    Side
    Yoko geri
    Side kick
    Yubi
    Finger
    Yubisaki
    Fingertip
    Yudansha
    Black Belt






    -Z-

    Zanshin
    Awareness
    Zazen
    Sitting meditation
    Zen
    Buddhist sect or Religious meditation
    Zenshin
    Whole body
    Zenkutsudachi
    Forward stance
    Zenwan
    Forearm
    Zori
    Japanese slippers
    Zuno
    Head or brains
     
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  2. Andrew Green

    Andrew Green Grandmaster

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    Well, one very common one is this:

    Geri
    Kick


    should be "Keri" not "Geri". There is a phonetic shift on many Japanese words depending on what comes before them. Harai / Barai - Same idea.

    Other little things as well, the general idea is right but the meaning is not. Tsuki is not punch or fist, but "thrust"

    or

    Hachiji dachi
    Natural stance

    "Hachi" is eight, and the foot positioning resembles the number 8 (Kanji, not "8")

    But my Japanese sucks, one course years back isn't much, maybe someone else can be more help in correcting it as a whole...
     
  3. Kreth

    Kreth Grandmaster

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    Cool post! Two suggestions:
    1. Some of your romanji is inconsistent (ex. "Iyeh" for no is commonly spelled Ie)
    2. I believe kumi uchi is a specific hold, rather than a generic term for grappling.
     
  4. OnlyAnEgg

    OnlyAnEgg Senior Master

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    What word would you substitute for 'fist', Andrew?

    Your comment on Hachiji Dachi makes good sense to me. I see it written like that all the time; but, when I've heard it spoken, it's always Hachi.

    My only Japanese is what I've learned in class and what I've picked up online.
     
  5. OnlyAnEgg

    OnlyAnEgg Senior Master

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    I've seen Iye spelled 'Ie', 'Iye' and 'Iyeh'; so, I just entered the one I liked best.

    Kumi-uchi, I have seen used as a hold and as the term for Jujitsu prior to the 1800s

    It's not an exhaustive or comprehensive list. More of a guide, I suppose...
     
  6. Brandon Fisher

    Brandon Fisher Master Black Belt

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    Its pretty good actually.
     
  7. Mustafa

    Mustafa Orange Belt

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    Thanks
     
  8. Andrew Green

    Andrew Green Grandmaster

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    couple missing but basic ones:

    Yon - 4
    Nana - 7

    4 and 7 can also be Shi and Shichi as well and they are interchangable for the most part. The way I understand it the character for death can be pronunced "Shi" so it is bad luck to use it when refering to people.

    So 4th dan is Yondan, rather then shidan. 7th is nanadan, rather then shichidan, etc.


    Egg,

    Fist again depends on context. "Kenpo" -> the Ken is "fist", but "Ken" on it's own I don't think would mean "fist."

    Some examples here:
    http://linear.mv.com/cgi-bin/j-e/dosearch?sDict=on&H=PS&L=E&T=fist&WC=none&FG=r&BG=b&S=26
     
  9. Monadnock

    Monadnock 2nd Black Belt

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    Yea, some of those look like they may be specific to certain martial art systems.

    Koshi often referes to the hip area.

    Yodansha should be Yudansha(?)

    It's a good start though...
     
  10. ELLEN

    ELLEN White Belt

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    Our Japanese exchange student told me that Japanese is used in soooo many different ways, and different pronounciations for different people present or occasions that, to even count from 1-10,...would be a bit of a problem for a native English speaker to get 100% straight. One could make themsleves understood...but it wouldn't be totally accurate to the Japanese ear! But, if you don't move or counter, & get punched in the gut...who care how you spell it!!!!! It hurts!
     

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