Hi All, I joined a Genbukan dojo a couple of weeks ago. I am trying to figure out the basic background of how the ryu system works. I did a lot of reading already over the last several days. Both here, on Wikipedia, the genbukan home page and various other places. Of course I also asked my sensei a lot of things already about ninpo, but I only see him once per week, and I dont want to keep hammering him with questions of a general nature. I think I have a basic understanding, but I have some questions left that I did not find the answer to. If these questions are covered somewhere else already, a link is all I need. Based on what I read so far, I have the impression that being awarded menkyo kaiden is a formal statement that you know everything there is to know about a certain ryu, and you are allowed to pass it on. But can someone who holds this certificate also grant menkyo kaiden to a student of his, or is that reserved for the soke only? If a soke dies without formally passing on his sokeship (?), can a menkyo kaiden holder claim it, or does the original ryu die? Since the soke is the person in charge of a ryu, is he allowed to make changes to the ryu? If menkyo kaiden indicates complete mastership, does that mean that the menkyo kaiden holder holds the highest dan grade? From what I read so far, I understand there is only one soke per ryu, and he passes ownership to only one student. But both Tanemura Sensei and Hatsumi Sensei are listed as soke of Gikan Ryu Koppojutsu. Is this an error? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masaaki_Hatsumi http://www.genbukan.org/cgi-bin/site.pl?ryu_soke I hope I posted this in the right forum, and that I didn't ask inappropriate questions. I was thinking it should go either here or in general martial arts, but since my last question is about a ryu held by Tanemura Sensei and / or Hatsumi Sensei, I decided to post here. I hope that was ok.