Please forgive me if this has already been hsared here on another thread. Collusion in Aikido: A Gentleman’s Agreement Taken Too Far by Stanley Pranin It's Stan Pranin's drafting & experience. I've noted this same problem when I visit other aikido schools, and even other arts with grappling/throwing techniques built-in their systems. If we can agree that standard old judo (as old as it is... it's older than me so that's old) is at the minimum a pretty good grappling and throwing art, I'm surprised more "throwing people" don't understand this: "You can't throw someone who is on-balance." Break balance, move where they didn't want to move or didn't expect to move, defeat and break down their structure/posture... and throws happen when you enter into the right position. The structure sets up the physics, and gravity makes the throw go. But... in dojo I've been at ... and time to time in my own when I've neglected to bang the drum "Kuzushi, tsukuri gake, in that order!" I find laziness, which is sort of the fallback position for even well-meaning people in class... they Do get tired after a while, is to cooperate in the training and that leads down a bad road. It might be fun, but believing your own BS can get you in a ton of trouble right quick if challenged. Thoughts?