Korean terms and hangul

Discussion in 'Korean Martial Arts - General' started by Kacey, Mar 15, 2007.

  1. Kacey

    Kacey Sr. Grandmaster

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    There are quite a few questions that come up about the use of Korean terms and hangul in the context of the martial arts. Since these discussions come up fairly frequently, some of them are being compiled and/or linked in this thread.

    What Korean terminology (if any) do you use in your Korean MA class?

    What is the difference between "kwon" and "kwan"?

    How do you identify different dan ranks?

    How do you read hangul? More here

    What exactly is the difference between chigi and jirugi, and how do you know when to use which term?

    Specific terminology in Korean, with names of text sources. More terminology here

    English to Korean translation (off the MT site - NOTE: must have a browser plug-in that will show hangul, or all you'll get are ????)

    TaeKwon-Do specific Korean terminology, transliterated (written phonetically in English)

    "Respect" in Korean

    Proper pronunciation of hangul; another here

    History of hangul; more here

    Korean terminology game; and another

    Tang Soo Do terminology discussion

    An Introduction to Korean (off the MT site)
     
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  2. exile

    exile To him unconquered.

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    Kacey, this is brilliant—the single source we've all been hoping for. Thanks very, very much for putting this together... makes me think we should have a `reference books' library on MT where this kind of encyclopaedic coverage can go.
     
  3. Kacey

    Kacey Sr. Grandmaster

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    Well, it was your idea, exile... thanks for mentioning it!
     
  4. exile

    exile To him unconquered.

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    True, but I didn't expect to see it come about so soon, or so thoroughly! This probably has all the info that anyone would ever need... great stuff, really!
     
  5. terryl965

    terryl965 <center><font size="2"><B>Martial Talk Ultimate<BR

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    Yes Kacey this is great Thanks
     
  6. wade

    wade Black Belt

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    Come on Kacey, give me a break will ya? I can only hit that damn button so many times in a given day then it's starts to get nasty with me, BUT! still, thanks, great post. :)
     
  7. Laurentkd

    Laurentkd Master Black Belt

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    Great post Kacey!!
    Thanks!
     
  8. Shaderon

    Shaderon Master of Arts

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    Fantastic Kacey!!! and a brilliant idea Exile!!!
     
  9. chrismay101

    chrismay101 Green Belt

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    Cheers kacey great post!
     
  10. jim777

    jim777 Master Black Belt

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    Awesome stuff, thanks very much! Does anyone know the pronunciation of the Korean words for thirty, forty, fifty, etc? I can only ever find the Hangul characters without any pronunciation. Most of the online resources stop at ten.

    Thanks in advance!

    jim
     
  11. e ship yuk

    e ship yuk Yellow Belt

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    Koreans use two different number systems, the native Korean numbers (hana, dul, set, etc) and the Sino-Korean numbers, based mostly on Chinese (il, e, sam, etc). Each is used for different things.

    Wikipedia has a good article on Korean numbers.

    In the Sino-Korean system, counting up to 99 is really easy - if you can count to 10, you can count to 99. The numbers from 1 to 10 have their own names. From 11 to 19, the numbers are formed by adding a number to ship, the word for ten - ship il is 11, ship ee is 12, ship sam is 13, etc. Numerals above these first tell you how many 10s are involved - ee ship is 20, sam ship is 30 - and then add the 1s - ee ship il is 21, ee ship ee is 22, and my user name, although spelled slightly differently, e ship yuk, is 26. The Tang Soo Do form E Ship Sa Bo is named in this way - Two Tens Four, and I believe Bo is step. So, 24 steps.

    The native Korean numbers have their own words for 20, 30, etc, but otherwise form their numbers the same. I'm less familiar with them, but again the Wikipedia article does a good job of detailing them.
     
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  12. jim777

    jim777 Master Black Belt

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    that's what I'm talking about!

    thanks!
     
  13. Dave Leverich

    Dave Leverich Black Belt

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    A question from a friend on another forum that might get a more informed response here perhaps...

    "I just need to clarify some issues of Korean semantics and phonology.

    BTW, I'm a layperson as to linguistics; and although I do know some of the general terms (in a not-too-precise manner), I would prefer explanations that are geared toward non-experts.

    Thanks.
    _________________
    eltenoch

    The faucalized (an "esoteric" linguistics term that describes the phoneme's production) consonants in Korean are those that are written as "doubled" to their "modal" or "regular" counterparts; ex., K/G, T/D, P/B, vs. K', T', P'. Most books geared to the layperson would just describe these as the "tense" consonants."

    "Thanks Dave, Very Happy

    So I guess asking help in how to articulate the Korean faucalized consonants is out of the question :)
    _________________
    eltenoch"


    Any help from our more enlightened linguists perhaps? I know I could use help with these as well.
     
  14. MBuzzy

    MBuzzy Grandmaster

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    &#50676; - 10 yeol - said: yool
    &#49828;&#47932; - 20 seu-mul - said: soo muel (ue - like in sue)
    &#49436;&#47480; - 30 seo-reun - said: saw roon
    &#47560;&#55124; - 40 ma heun - said: ma hoon
    &#49776; - 50 shwin - said: shwin
    &#50696;&#49692; - 60 ye sun - said: yay suen (ue - like in sue)
    &#51068;&#55124; - 70 i rheun - said: ee roon
    &#50668;&#46304; - 80 yeo deun - said: yaw doon
    &#50500;&#55124; - 90 a heun - said: ah hoon

    Here's the tricky part....In Korean, there is no r or l. It is the same letter, depending on where it falls in the word, it can sound different, but if you try to go somewhere in between the two, you will get it. It is tough to explain unless you read hangul, but if I used an L, then it sounds closer to an L......if I used an r, it sounds closer to a t than anything.....hard to explain.
     
  15. MBuzzy

    MBuzzy Grandmaster

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    oh yeah....that's the OTHER number system. The Korean based number system that starts with hana, tul, set, net, etc...
     
  16. zDom

    zDom Senior Master

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    English has two sets, too.

    Cardinal (one, two, three) and ordinal (first, second, third).

    I believe (please correct me if I'm wrong) that "hanah, tul, set" are used as cardinal numbers and "il, ee, sam, sah" are used as ordinal.
     
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  17. Kacey

    Kacey Sr. Grandmaster

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    That is my understanding as well - for both English and Korean.
     
  18. e ship yuk

    e ship yuk Yellow Belt

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    Pretty much. The Sino-Korean numbers are also used to tell time, and can be used to denote someone's age. The English ordinals are pretty similar, in most cases, to their cardinals, also. The Korean, not so much.
     
  19. MBuzzy

    MBuzzy Grandmaster

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    Actually, that is not exactly correct - and I will be the first to say that I don't fully understand the Korean number system.

    Both the Sino-Korean (Chinese based; il, ee, sam, sa, oh) and Pure-Korean (hana, tul, set, net, tasot) systems are Cardinal systems, i.e. both are equivalent to 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. But they are used for different things. The pure Korean numbers are used for Counting. For example, in class, when counting repetitions, you use hana, tul, set, net. But when counting things and expressing ideas....years, months, days, currency, you use Sino-Korean....but not always. It is VERY confusing...in fact, Koreans don't always get it right and will sometimes interchange.

    Telling time.......You won't belive this.......you use the Korean system for hours and the Sino Korean system for minutes.

    You ALSO need to use countwords for everything....Even in telling time. Depending on what you're counting, there will be different words. For example, when counting cups, you must say chan following the number...for people, you must say myong, and those are in addition to the word for what you are counting (so it would be "people 4 persons")

    The ordinal system is completely separate and also has two sets of numbers.....and those words and longer and more difficult.


    OH! And get this.....there are no Pure Korean numbers above 99, so after that, it is ALSO Sino-Korean.
     
  20. MBuzzy

    MBuzzy Grandmaster

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    A little more....to show just how confusing this gets, here is 1-10 in both systems of Ordinal numbers...These things take FOREVER to type out with an English keyboard!!

    Sino-Korean
    First &#51228; 1&#51032; che irui
    Second &#51228; 2&#51032; che iui
    Third &#51228; 3&#51032; che samui
    Fourth &#51228; 4&#51032;che saui
    Fifth &#51228; 5&#51032;che oui
    Sixth &#51228; 6&#51032;che yugui
    Seventh &#51228; 7&#51032;che ch’irui
    Eighth&#51228; 8&#51032;che p’arui
    Ninth &#51228; 9&#51032;che kuui
    Tenth &#51228; 10&#51032;che shipui

    Pure Korean
    First &#52395; &#48264;&#51704;&#51032; ch’ot pontchaeui
    Second &#46160;&#48264;&#51704;&#51032; tu pontchaeui
    Third &#49464;&#48264;&#51704;&#51032; se pontchaeui
    Fourth &#45348;&#48264;&#51704;&#51032; ne pontchaeui
    Fifth &#45796;&#49455;&#48264;&#51704;&#51032; tasot pontchaeui
    Sixth &#50668;&#49455;&#48264;&#51704;&#51032; yosot pontchaeui
    Seventh &#51068;&#44273; &#48264;&#51704;&#51032; ilgop pontchaeui
    Eighth &#50668;&#45919;&#48264;&#51704;&#51032; yodol pontchaeui
    Ninth &#50500;&#54857;&#48264;&#51704;&#51032; ahop pontchaeui
    Tenth &#50676;&#48264;&#51704;&#51032; yol pontchaeui
     

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