The Newbie Guide to Martial Arts Training (ver 2.6) - by Jeff Pipkins

Discussion in 'General Martial Arts Talk' started by Bob Hubbard, Jan 16, 2002.

  1. Bob Hubbard

    Bob Hubbard Retired

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    Archive-name: martial-arts/newbie-guide
    Last-modified: 17 Jun 1995

    Posting-Frequency: monthly in *.answers, every two weeks in rec.martial-arts

    Note: The Newbie Guide has been posted by Randy Pals (pals@ipact.com),
    but the sole author/maintainer of the NG is Jeff Pipkins. Please address
    any replies to Jeff (Pipkins@bangate.compaq.com).


    The Newbie Guide to Martial Arts Training (ver 2.6)
    by Jeff Pipkins


    So, you've never really had any martial arts training, but you'd like
    to start. Where do you go? Which school is the best? This guide
    will help you find your answers if you're willing to invest some effort.

    HOW TO LOOK
    -----------

    You probably already know that there are many different styles of
    martial arts. Because variety abounds, it's only natural to ask which
    style is "best". Unfortunately, it's just not that simple. The
    question itself is not even complete, but even if there were a one-
    word answer, chances are that answer wouldn't help you anyway. Not
    unless you're also willing to pick up and move to a school where the
    "best" style is taught. And even then, it's very important to realize
    that two schools that teach the same style, that have the same name on
    their signs, are often different, many times drastically different.
    So the name on the sign can tell you absolutely nothing about the
    quality of the school. So, it's natural thing to want to ask which
    style is best and then go look that up in the phone book. But it is
    also possibly the worst way to go about becoming a martial arts student.

    The more pragmatic approach is to first make a survey of the schools
    in your area. There are probably more schools near you than you
    realize, because many schools advertise very little or not at all.
    This guide will give you tips on finding them. Then, you should visit
    several of the schools, many times, before deciding where you want to
    train. This guide will help you by giving you some hints on what to
    look for and what to ignore.

    This guide is here to help you find a place to train, but to gain
    the benefits, you must be willing to put in some hard work. Choosing
    a school is an important decision you shouldn't take lightly. Commit
    yourself to spending the time and effort it takes to choose wisely.
    If it takes you 2 or 3 months of searching and visiting to decide,
    that is certainly time very well spent, and it will be well worth it
    to have found a good school that suits you well.


    WHERE TO LOOK
    -------------

    There is little correlation between the cost and the quality of
    martial arts training. So why not look for quality first among the
    cheaper prices?! Here are some places to look to find M.A. schools:

    1. Friends, or friends of friends
    2. Bulletin boards at martial-arts supply stores
    3. Bulletin boards at Asian bookstores
    4. Local colleges (also check "continuing education" courses)
    5. Community/Civic Center Programs
    6. YMCA/YWCA/Jewish Community Centers (Programs at these places
    do not typically require that you be of any particular
    religious affiliation in order to participate.)
    7. Classified ads from newspapers and local free papers (these can
    often be found on your way out of the grocery store).
    8. Cultural heritage festivals
    9. Bulletin boards at Oriental restaurants. (Hint: if you
    decide to ask someone who works there, don't assume that
    they know anything about martial arts. Also, don't assume
    that they are, say, Chinese just because they work at or
    own a Chinese restaurant. Beware of stereotypes, especially
    where someone may take offense.)
    10. Road signs
    11. Yellow Pages under "Karate..." or "Martial Arts"

    Numbers 1-10 aren't intended to be in any particular order, but personally,
    I would only consider #11 after exhausting the other 10 options. But when it
    comes down to that, I would first consider the ones that are near the route
    I take between home and work. You can usually find a list of many, but
    certainly not all, schools by looking in the Yellow Pages under "Karate..."
    (even if most styles there aren't Karate), or sometimes under "Martial Arts".
    Remember that there is little that can appear in the Yellow Pages to
    recommend one place over another. Consulting the Yellow Pages for a martial
    arts school should be considered a last resort. You will have to visit a
    school to make any comparison at all. If you live in a small town, you
    might just visit all of them. If you live in a big city, that might not be
    feasible. If you have a really large number of choices, be of good cheer --
    you don't have to find the absolute "best" school, just a very good school
    where you can learn and be happy. But do try to visit more than just a few
    schools. Also, you must visit a school more than once to form a valid
    opinion.


    HOW MUCH
    --------

    Cost is neither the most nor the least important factor in your decision.
    You must weigh it according to your own priorities. Prices vary widely.
    I've paid as little as US$35/quarter (3 mos.) at a college, which is
    considered extremely low. I've paid as much as US$75/mo at a commercial
    school, which is considered higher than average. Some schools give you a
    price break if you pay lump sum for several months. Some schools require
    you to sign a long-term contract to join. To discuss all of the different
    ways to pay and the associated legalities is beyond the scope of this
    humble document.

    Many schools charge an additional fee for each belt test. The fee may be
    different depending on rank. They might charge US$15 for your first test,
    and US$1000 for your black belt test. Be sure to ask. Some schools require
    that you belong (and therefore pay dues to) a world-wide organization.
    When inquiring about costs, be sure to ask about costs that senior students
    pay, as well as what beginners pay.

    You will probably have to spend some bucks on an appropriate uniform or two.
    Uniforms vary with the school, but don't be surprised if you have to pay
    US$60 or more for what looks like a pair of white pajamas. You may also
    need other equipment, such as sparring gear/pads, training weapons, etc.
    Most schools will let beginners get by without a uniform for a while at
    first; be sure to ask to get details. If you do this, the clothes you wear
    in the interim should be comfortable, secure, and modest. It's prudent
    to avoid wearing your favorite florescent orange aerobic/dance skins or your
    prize-winning swimwear. Plain old sloppy sweats are a good bet.

    Some arts just inherently have a higher equipment cost associated with them.
    Kendo may be the most expensive in this regard because of all the armour
    needed to practice safely (though this may be offset by the higher
    availability of nonprofit instructors). You may think that Sumo is the
    cheapest since they don't wear very much, but don't forget the cost of
    all that food.

    There's nothing mystical about the martial arts that automatically keeps
    a school from trying to rip you off. It's not the norm, but it's not all
    that uncommon, either. If you get a high-pressure sales pitch and you feel
    like you're being hustled, just walk out. If you're being treated like
    they're trying to sell you a used car, then respond in kind -- you don't
    have to finish the conversation, just walk out. As with any business deal,
    the rule is caveat emptor -- let the buyer beware!


    WHAT TO LOOK FOR
    ----------------

    Perhaps the first thing to look at is the schedule. You can't learn if
    you can't attend the classes. Depending on the style and school (and size
    of the school), there may be separate classes for beginner/intermediate/
    advanced, so be aware that the schedule may change on you as you advance.

    Find out who teaches most of the classes. In many cases it isn't the
    head instructor. If the classes are split beginner/intermediate/advanced,
    chances are good that the head instructor doesn't teach the beginner
    classes. But does he teach most of the advanced classes? And who will
    you be spending most of your class time with?

    Talk to several students. Ask them how long they've studied there, what
    they like about it, who teaches most of the classes, etc. Remember that
    they aren't likely to say anything critical there in the school; just ask
    what they like about it and read between the lines the best you can.

    Take special notice of the atmosphere. I mean the attitudes, not the decor.
    Are they friendly/respectful toward one another? After a sparring match,
    do they smile at each other or grit their teeth and show disdain? Does the
    instructor seem to be interested in growing a student along and pruning them
    carefully, or does he mow them down and use them to prove that he truly is a
    god? Are there an unreasonable number of injuries in class caused by a lack
    of control? Look for healthy and unhealthy attitudes. Ideally, the student
    is encouraged to compete with himself/herself, not with other students.

    You MUST visit a school more than once in order to form a valid opinion.
    That is, unless you get the high-pressure sales pitch and walk out the
    first time. But aside from that, if you only visit one class, you'll still
    have no idea what a typical class is like. Classes vary from one to another.
    There are good days and bad days for everyone, even instructors. The usual
    instructor may be on vacation. There might even be different types of
    classes on different days of the week (on one day we do weapons training, on
    another we do punches and kicks, on another we do throws and pins, etc.) So
    when narrowing down your choices, visit more often so you can get a good idea
    of what it would be like to train there.

    Be aware that many schools do not have continuous enrollment. You may
    have to wait until next week, next month, or even next semester (if the
    school meets at a college) for the next beginner's class to start. This
    is pretty much par, so don't let this offend or discourage you. Use the
    waiting time to do more visiting!

    The choice of who will be your first teacher is an extremely important
    one. Unfortunately, as a beginner, you are completely unqualified to
    judge the skill of instructors. You should realize that this is a basic
    fundamental dilemma. If you have a friend who is a skilled martial artist,
    you could ask them to come with you -- but how will you judge the skill
    of your friend? This is the beginner's dilemma. It's like getting lost
    in an unfamiliar town, and everyone you ask gives you different directions.
    Most of them are probably wrong, some lie to you on purpose, and more than
    one of them may have given you correct instructions (though one route may
    be longer than another). There is no way that a guide like this can tell
    you how to judge the skill of an instructor. That only comes with years
    of experience. So you must make your decision based on whether you like
    the school itself, and the attitudes there, and other non-technical things.
    There really is no way out of this dilemma. I'm not saying this to
    discourage, but because it's important for you to recognize your own
    limitations and to be honest with yourself about them.


    WHAT NOT TO LOOK FOR
    --------------------

    Some things you should NOT base your decision on:

    1. The RACE or GENDER of the instructor is completely unimportant.
    Don't automatically assume that an instructor is good merely
    because he's an Asian male. Likewise, don't assume one is not
    good because she's a non-Asian female.

    2. It's not important whether the building is real nice and fancy.
    Many people are getting excellent training in their instructor's
    garage or back yard!

    3. Do not allow your decision to be swayed by unrelated features,
    such as the availability of exercise machines, hot tubs, and
    tanning beds.

    4. Don't make your decision based on the garmets worn during practice.
    Students in one school may wear something that looks like a skirt,
    while those in another school may wear something that looks like
    star-spangled pajamas. Pay attention to the techniques and attitudes
    rather than the garmets. (But personally, I'd be suspicious of the
    star-spangled pajamas...)

    5. In some arts like Sumo, the size of the instructor is important, but
    this is an unusual exception. For the vast majority of styles, the
    size and strength of the instructor are not important. You should
    not generally be concerned with whether you are built the same way
    as the instructor.

    6. If you are not interested in martial arts as a sport, then don't be
    impressed by a large collection of huge, shiny trophies. If you are
    interested in it as a sport, you should still curb your enthusiasm of
    trophies somewhat. In many tournaments, the trophies are plentiful,
    and nearly everyone takes one home for something or other. Some get
    one just for being the only one present in their particular category.
    So at least read what's written on the trophies. If you still find
    yourself overly impressed by them, visit your local trophy shop.


    RANK
    ----

    In most (but not all) styles, there is a ranking system. There is no
    universal ranking system. Without any training at all, you can buy a
    black belt for US$7.50, tie it on your pajamas, declare that you have just
    created a new martial art style, and promote yourself to 10th degree black
    belt without breaking any laws (at least not in the U.S.) As a newbie,
    you must be aware that this is not only possible, but that it has been
    done many times.

    A typical Japanese ranking system would be to rank non-black belts from
    10th kyu (low) up to 1st kyu (high), and black belts from 1st dan (low)
    to 10th dan (high). Depending on the style, there might be only 5 kyu
    ranks, or only 5 dan ranks, etc. Typically, 9th dan is the highest, and
    there is only one (usually in Japan). Korean ranking systems are typically
    very similar, but the word "gup" is used instead of "kyu" (hence the
    slang term "guppies" for beginners). The ranking system of Chinese
    styles differ considerably; some use sashes instead of belts, but many
    don't have much of a ranking system at all. There are martial arts from
    other countries than these, and their ranking systems may be drastically
    different.

    Don't be overly concerned with the rank of the instructor. You won't be
    able to even tell the difference between a 3rd degree black belt and a 9th
    degree black belt for a long, long time. You should, however, be a little
    suspicious of those claiming unusually high ranks. Most of the 9th dans
    out there are those who have quit some other school and started a school of
    their own, and then promoted themselves to 9th dan. There is no universal
    governing body that assigns ranks to everyone. Each style assigns their
    own ranks as they please. You CANNOT compare ranks between different
    schools! A certain colored belt in one school doesn't mean the same as
    the same color belt in another school. Some schools don't even have belts.
    Some don't even have ranks. Don't let the rank game distract you from
    what is really important.

    Some schools belong to world-wide organizations. These have the advantage
    that you can transfer your rank to another member school. They usually
    have the disadvantage of dues that each student must pay to the organization.
    Often there are two or more rival organizations for a given style. The
    politics involved in such things are extremely involved. In deciding on a
    school, I would tend to place little significance on their organization, and
    much more significance on the quality of training at that particular school.


    WHEN YOU VISIT
    --------------

    1. When visiting for the first time, call ahead to make sure visitors
    are welcome. It wouldn't be a bad idea to ask about proper protocol
    while you're at it. Some schools have shoe racks on the way in
    the door where you should leave your shoes; most ask that you bow
    in the doorway when you enter; some ask that you stand during
    opening/closing ceremonies; etc.

    2. When visiting for the first time, wear normal street clothes;
    whatever you wear to work is usually appropriate (depending on
    what you do for a living...)

    3. Be very polite.

    4. If you're offered a hand, shake hands. If someone bows to you,
    bow back -- about the same height, in the same manner that
    they bow, and don't look at them while you are bowing, unless
    they look at you.

    5. Be quiet during class; don't do anything to draw attention to
    yourself while the class is in progress.

    6. Get there early, and stay afterwards so you can ask questions.

    7. Don't discuss other schools at all, if possible. If you cannot
    avoid the subject altogether, then at least don't say anything
    derogatory about another school.

    8. Don't try to impress them with your (limited) knowledge of
    different styles and your (equally limited) vocabulary of foreign
    words (especially if they're from the wrong foreign language).


    Acknowledgements
    ----------------

    I'd like to thank the following people for contributing their wisdom,
    suggestions, and encouragement to this guide. (The appearance of
    their names here does not signify agreement with everything written
    here, of course.)

    Stephen Chan Peter Hahn Bill Rankin
    Terry Chan Michael Lawrie Michael Robinson
    Joe Chew Mary Malmros Andy Vida-Szucs
    Doug Cohen Joe Pfeiffer Diane Winters
    Bud Glunt David Poore Tom Yurkiw
    Steve Gombosi Lauren Radner

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------
    (C) Copyright 1993-5, Jeff D. Pipkins. All rights reserved.

    The Newbie Guide amounts to nothing more than my personal opinions, which
    at your own risk, you are free to use, ignore, or disagree with. You
    must not change the Newbie Guide in any way, but you are free to make
    copies of it as long as the copy is verbatim and complete, including this
    message and my ".sig" quote at the bottom. You may distribute such copies
    as long as you do not charge any fees for that.

    Good luck!
    --Jeff Pipkins

    The Newbie Guide is periodically posted to rec.martial-arts on USENET.
    Requests for latest copy, questions, suggestions, and constructive
    criticisms are all welcome via email at the following address.

    Pipkins@bangate.compaq.com
    ------------------------------------------------------------------- [sig #10]
    I am NOT authorized to represent |
    my employer. Use my opinions | I've already told you more than I know...
    ONLY at your OWN risk. |


    --
    Matthew Weigel
    Research Systems Programmer
    mcweigel+@cs.cmu.edu
     
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  2. Bob Hubbard

    Bob Hubbard Retired

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    Found it, downloaded it and posted it here as it seemed useful. All rights remain the original authors.

    :asian:
     
  3. I agree completely.

    When I was a wrestler, there were so many body types and it's impossible to say which is which. Physical attirbutes like speed, agility, etc. along with your body type dictate on which techniques are easier for you. It's a trial and error, a time of discovery. A tall, lanky person won't do low-level doubles or singles, but would like to do just single-leg snatches, and when on the ground, work a lot of the moves. A short, stocky person could pressure wrestle, or if he's quick, do low-evel finishes or just shoot and lift or lateral or whatever. In other arts, it's the same thing. In muay thai, HWT's fight differently than 150s. In boxing, people like De Lay Hoya fight differently from people like Lewis as he fights different from Butterbean (the worst excuse for a boxer).
     
  4. tarabos

    tarabos 2nd Black Belt

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    a very good point to touch on. the guide has a lot of helpful information. it should help out a lot of perspective martial artists that come here.
     
  5. Infight

    Infight Guest

    Interesting guide!
     
  6. brothershaw

    brothershaw Purple Belt

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    Perhaps one good piece of advice for newbies is definitely try to avoid for paying for too many months upfront.
    1- Many schools try to get a few months upfront or a contract to insure a steady income to pay rent
    2- Also most new people dont last more than 2-3 months if even that long. ( They find out how out of shape they are, or find the basics extremely boring and/ or painful).
    3- Considering that you may join a school that you wont stay in, assume that you may join or 2 more schools, if you want to really study martial arts, and the experience at your first or second school will let you really know what you like or dont like.


    Bottom line assume the first school you join may be the first school you join but not necessarilly the last.
     
  7. moromoro

    moromoro 2nd Black Belt

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    Don't be overly concerned with the rank of the instructor. You won't be
    able to even tell the difference between a 3rd degree black belt and a 9th
    degree black belt for a long, long time.


    I HAVE TO DISAGREE WITH THIS ONE, you should always train with experienced instructors and not beginning instructors who's goals are only to teach.....

    thanks

    terry
     
  8. Elfan

    Elfan Guest

    You raise a good point but *rank* doesn't necesarily corelate to skill or experience.
     
  9. moromoro

    moromoro 2nd Black Belt

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    your right in the street it doesnt mean much,

    but for that particular style of choice the student should always train with the highest ranking practitioner of the art he could find this keeps him away from those who are "new" instructors.

    thanks

    terry
     
  10. Ender

    Ender Black Belt

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    Like in high school and in college....length of tenure or degree don't matter that much....it's the teacher and his/her style, enthusiasm, concern for the students and ability to teach. those are important.
     
  11. moromoro

    moromoro 2nd Black Belt

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    and try to look for the best teacher in that style
     
  12. andurilking2

    andurilking2 Guest

    too true
     
  13. YouAgain

    YouAgain Green Belt

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    Wow what an interesting read.... even though I've been doing MA for a while it was still great!
     
  14. vincefuess

    vincefuess Guest

    Are not necessarily good martial artists in practice. Some are, some aren't. The bottom line is that they be able to convey the material to you so that you can use it and you enjoy it. The best instructor takes great joy in seeing their pupils do better than they could themselves.

    Charlatans abound in martial arts, as they do anywhere money is to be made. Let common sense always be your guide.
     
  15. Cobra

    Cobra Guest

    I also would like to say to newbies to the martial art, don't think just because a martial art has nothing but throws and no strikes like judo, BJJ, or wrestling, it doesn't mean it is a inefective art. In fact, many people now a days agree that throwing or submission arts is better for a street fight.
     
  16. trippoint

    trippoint Guest

    I don't know if this is just my area or what... but most schools charge $100 - $150 for instruction. $75 would be awesome.


    -trip
     
  17. pakua

    pakua Guest

    My kids train Ryukyu Kobujutsu, and one thing that impresses me is the strong ties to Japan. To me, that indicates it's "kosher"- our students and instructors go there from time to time, and twice since we've been involved the head from Japan has been here to give workshops.

    In any style is so affilliated, I'd look for such ties.
     
  18. Raewyn

    Raewyn Master Black Belt

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    Im a newbie to MA, and am learning alot of submission holds, not too much throwing yet, have found them to be very useful, as to the guide there was alot of information there that I did not know about.
     
  19. Adept

    Adept Master Black Belt

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    Only people who've never been in one. There's nothing quite like rolling around in broken glass trying to put someone in an armbar while their mate is belting you in the head with a pool cue...
     
  20. lklawson

    lklawson Senior Master

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    There is a newer version now. Feel free to email me with comments.

    http://www-2.cs.cmu.edu/~mcweigel/rmafaq/newbieguide.txt
    http://groups-beta.google.com/group/rec.martial-arts/msg/4d19f5cf79318fa9

    ========================================================
    Martial Arts Newbie Guide
    Version 2.0
    Kirk Lawson

    ------------------------------

    Subject: 1 - Table of Contents

    1 - Table of Contents
    2 - Introduction
    3 - How To Look
    4 - Where To Look
    5 - How Much
    6 - What To Look For
    7 - What Not To Look For
    8 - Rank
    9 - When You Visit
    10 - Should I Study More Than One at a Time
    11 - The Dark Side of Martial Arts
    12 - What Kind of Martial Art Suits Me
    13 - Disclaimer and Copyright Notice

    ------------------------------

    Subject: 2 - Introduction

    So you want to be the next Bruce Lee, Jet Li, Helio Gracie, Chuck Norris,
    or Master Pan. Congratulations and welcome to the wide world of Martial
    Arts. You may be wondering what comes next. Where do you go, what do you
    do, and are you going to have a dragon branded onto your forearm as you
    lift a red hot brazier to exit the hidden monastery? The Purpose of this
    document is to answer a few questions, give you an overview and maybe point
    you in the right direction. It is intended as a companion documente for
    the rec.martial-arts FAQ. Many of the topics in the Newbie Guide are
    covered more in depth in the body of the rec.martial-arts FAQ proper but
    we'll touch on them here in an abbreviated form.

    ------------------------------

    Subject: 3 - How To Look

    One of the questions asked ad nauseam is, "What is the best art?" or
    sometimes its modified form, "I wanna kick butt and don't want fancy-schmancy
    stuff, what art should I choose?" Well, the answer is, "We don't know."
    There's much debate over what exactly is the "best art" or what is an
    "effective art." It comes down to a lot of questions such as, "Best for
    what?" and "Best for you or best for me?" In the end, it's a question
    you're going to have to answer for yourself through personal exploration
    and hard work. Since you're looking for a Martial Art to start, you should
    look for the ones that are available to you. Simply put; it doesn't matter
    if it's the ultimate kick-butt art, if you can't find a school near enough
    to take classes at. With that thought in mind, you should look to see what
    schools are available in your area and make your selection from those. If
    you are looking for a specific art, you are still restricted to what's in
    your area, so go ahead and look anyway.

    ------------------------------

    Subject: 4 - Where To Look

    OK, so we've established that you should look at the schools in your area.
    All well and good, but how do you _find_ what schools are in your area?
    Here are a number of recommendations.

    - Recommendation of Friends - Ask your friends and associates. You might
    be surprised how many people you work with or shop with are martial artists
    themselves or know of reputable schools, particularly hard to find "Garage
    Dojos" (see the FAQ).

    - Bulletin Boards at MA supply stores - It goes without saying that a local
    martial arts supply store would be a good central location, a gathering
    spot, for local martial artists. They have to get their equipment from
    _somewhere_. Look at the bulletin boards in these supply stores. Don't
    rule out general athletic supply stores.

    - Bulletin Boards at Asian bookstores - Since many martial arts are Asian in
    origin, many martial artists have an interest in Asian culture and books
    (particularly books about martial arts).

    - Bulletin Boards at Super Markets & the like - Many "Super Stores" such as
    Wal-Mart and Meijers have bulletin boards specifically for advertising
    within the local community. These advertisements include bicycles for
    sale, free puppies, and... martial arts studios.

    - Bulletin Boards at Oriental Restaurants - Again, because many martial arts
    are Asian in origin, many martial artists embrace Asian culture, including
    Asian Cuisine. More then that, it seems a likely place to put up fliers
    for martial arts studious looking for a place to put up said fliers. As
    has been noted elsewhere, just because people working in these restaurants
    are Asian, do not expect them to know anything about martial arts; some may
    take offense at these sort of stereotypes.

    - Local Colleges - Many colleges have martial arts clubs on campus. Judo is
    particularly well known on college campuses, but, by no means, has a lock
    on it. Some colleges even offer martial arts course for College Credit as
    part of their Physical education curriculum.

    - The 'Y', Civic Centers, and Community Centers - The YMCA/YWCA are havens for
    martial arts schools. Included in the mix are Civic Centers, including
    religious based Community Centers, Park & Rec. programs and Police Athletic
    Leagues.

    - Classified Adds, free newspaper adds - Another source is in the Classified
    Adds of your local news paper or in the classifieds of various "free"
    newspapers, typically available in bookstores and groceries.

    - Welcome Wagon Baskets - Many martial arts studios will include special
    promotions in Welcome Wagon baskets to new members of the community. These
    promotions often include free classes, reduced rates, or free uniforms.

    - Cultural Heritage Festivals - One of the common misconceptions is that all
    martial arts are Asian in origin. Though many of the most well known are,
    there are an amazing number that are Occidental (Western) or otherwise
    non-Asian. Cultural Heritage Festivals often include a demonstration of
    fighting arts from that proud culture, such as the Shillelagh from Ireland
    or Gatka from India.

    - Cultural Heritage Centers - The people there may know of schools, and in
    some cases, might actually be holding classes of some kind in the facility.

    - Renaissance and Western History Festivals or Clubs - Many Western Martial
    arts such as Renaissance Combat Wrestling, Broadsword, Rapier, Bare Knuckle
    Boxing, or Quarterstaff are often taught in clubs celebrating Western
    Heritage or associated with such clubs. One example is The Association for
    Renaissance Martial Arts (formerly Historical Armed Combat Association)
    <http://www.thehaca.com>. The Society for Creative Anachronism
    <http://www.sca.org> teaches some of these, typically in a "safe" "sport"
    form but the local chapter can be a good place to start or they may be able
    to direct you toward a school or instructor that can meet your needs.

    - In the park - You might see an individual, or a group, practicing in your
    local park. Even if you don't see any martial artists, if you chat to
    folks, you might find someone who comes to the park frequently and has seen
    a group that does practice there regularly.

    - Local corporations - Many companies, especially larger ones, sponsor or
    publicize employee group activities. These are not necessarily restricted
    to employees of the company.

    - Road Signs and Posted Advertisements - Most martial arts studios will put
    up advertisements and fliers on telephone poles or at Mall entrances. They
    will also often put up "directions" signs pointing towards their school
    from major roads.

    - Yellow Pages under "Martial Arts" or "Karate" - As always, the Yellow Pages
    has a section for those willing to pay for advertising their phone number.

    ------------------------------

    Subject: 5 - How Much

    So how much is all this training going to cost? The short answer is: it
    depends. Schools are free to charge whatever they want for their
    instruction. How much they charge is a function of how much they think
    their instruction is worth, how expensive goods and services are in that
    area, and what their expenses are. Small "Garage Dojos" with little
    overhead have been known to charge as little as $20 a month per student,
    while instruction at other studios in comparatively expensive cities (such
    as New York) could cost hundreds of dollars per month. The issue is
    further complicated by bringing in differences in national location. In
    other words, what is reasonable for a big city in Germany is not
    necessarily equal to what would be reasonable in a big U.S. city. Thus, it
    is not really possible to accurately predict how much you will be expected
    to pay at any give school in any given location. However, currently it is
    not seen as unreasonable for schools to charge between $40 and
    $75 a month. In some rare cases, instructors will not charge at all. This is
    often true for groups that meet in the park, such as some taiji (Tai Chi)
    groups. Further, it should be noted that the PRICE of the instruction is not
    always a good indicator of the QUALITY of the instruction. More on this in
    "What Not To Look For."

    Doubtless, you have noted that I've been speaking of monthly charges. This
    is the most common way to pay: month by month. However, there are other
    options with most schools. Often you may receive a discount for paying
    ahead in 3, 6, or 12 month blocks. Some schools offer contracts.

    A short discussion of contracts is warranted. Many martial artists are
    wary of school contracts. Contracts have been known to be used by scam
    artists in the past or, occasionally by legitimate martial artists who will
    "stick it to you," enforcing payment terms of the contract should you wish
    to be "out" of it for whatever reason. However, there are many legitimate
    uses of contracts by martial arts schools. They can reduce costs for the
    instructor and free him from tedious billing issues that can distract him
    from teaching martial arts. Don't let the option of a contract dissuade
    you from any particular school but be wary of schools that _require_ a
    contract (and will not give you a month-to-month option) or contracts that
    guarantee "black belt" within a given time frame.

    You should note that training fees may not be the only fees associated with
    your martial arts selection. Other fees often include fees for rank
    testing. How much you pay for rank testing varies from art to art and from
    school to school. Usually, earlier ranks are less expensive and more
    advanced ranks are more expensive. You might be asked to pay $15 for your
    first test and work your way up to $100 or more for your "black belt" test.
    Some schools charge you the testing fee regardless of whether or not you
    pass your test while others only charge you the fee if you actually pass.

    Another "hidden cost" often seen in the martial arts is that of equipment.
    Some martial arts require you to purchase a uniform (often the "white
    pajamas" Gi). Inexpensive uniforms for striking arts such as karate can be
    had for $20, heavier-weight uniforms for grappling arts such as judo start at
    $50. Prices for the divided skirt and top used for some other arts such as
    kendo start at around $100. Advanced students can pay as much as $200 for a
    high-quality judo uniform, $400 for a high-quality kendo uniform. Your
    instructor should be able to help you find an appropriate uniform or point you
    to where you can buy one. But your equipment costs may not end there. You may
    be required to purchase safety equipment such as sparring gloves, shin pads,
    and head gear, or you may be required to purchase various "weapons" used
    during practice such as staffs, swords, or knifes (usually a training "safety"
    variety). Take heart though. Most schools have "loaners" available until you
    can purchase your own.

    You may also be required to join an organization and pay membership fees.
    These are typically an umbrella organization that certifies the instructor
    in their martial art. They can point you to affiliated schools that will
    recognize your hard won rank and continue your training should you be
    forced to move or be traveling abroad. These membership fees or dues are
    typically on the order of $20 - $50 a year. Some organizations have a
    lifetime membership program (or are lifetime memberships by default),
    others are variations or only require yearly dues for "black belt" rank and
    above. Your instructor will be able to tell you the details of his
    organization, should he be a member of one. Be sure to ask about parent
    organization dues before you join a martial arts school.

    OK, so now you're paying all this money for training, equipment costs,
    dues, testing fees, and the like... how do you know you're not getting
    ripped off? Well, like everything else, shop around. Find out what other
    schools are charging for these goods and services. Some "red flags"
    include schools that require you to buy only their branded uniforms and
    gear, require you to sign long contracts, have no "move refund" option in
    their contract, or high-pressure sales pitches. If it feels like you're
    buying a used car and the salesman insists you sign the contract now, smile
    politely and head for the door.

    ------------------------------

    Subject: 6 - What To Look For

    So what are some of the things you should look for or ask about when
    visiting a school? Number one, ask about the class schedule. If classes
    only meet when you can't attend, it crosses the school off for you.

    Another thing to look for is who is teaching the classes. Often, the
    person teaching your class won't be the head instructor. Frequently the
    head instructor will have some of his advanced students teaching classes.
    This is particularly true if the school you choose has separate classes for
    lower ranked and higher ranked students or if they have a "new student"
    class. Don't let this dissuade you. Often instructors teaching "new
    students" are doing so because they have shown an aptitude for helping new
    students learn the basics of an art, perhaps even beyond that of the head
    instructor. The ability to _teach_ a physical skill is often dissociated
    to some degree from the ability to actually perform that skill at high
    levels. Most professional boxers could whip the tar out of their coaches
    even though their coaches know how to box. While on the topic, find out if
    there is an "introductory" or "getting started" class or course. This can
    be a good way to get up to speed quickly with the basics of an art or to
    "sample" that school.

    While visiting a school, spend some time talking to the students before or
    after class. Talk to both high and low ranking students, they'll have
    different perspectives. Spend some time understanding the atmosphere of
    the school, it will take more then one brief visit. Some are strict
    disciplinarian and some are easy camaraderie. Again, don't assume that the
    instructor that runs his school like a drill sergeant produces kick-butt
    martial artists while a more easy going school is lax or lackadaisical. They
    are simply different teaching styles and one may be more appropriate to
    your needs then the other.

    Another thing to take note of is injuries. Let's face it, martial arts are
    inherently dangerous. They are _martial_ and no matter how safe you train
    or what safety equipment is used, there is a risk. There are bound to be
    some injuries. However, the nature and frequency of the injuries are what
    you should consider. A black eye is far different from an injured joint
    and if broken bones occur frequently, that may indicate a problem. You
    can't train while recovering from some injuries. Some injuries are
    permanent and will affect you the rest of your life.

    Finally, though uncommon, some schools have an "enrollment period." They
    operate like college classes in that you can only join at certain times of
    the month or year.

    ------------------------------

    Subject: 7 - What Not To Look For

    Some years ago a movie came out: They Call Me Bruce! In this comedy, an
    Asian man made his way through a number of people who thought he was a
    great martial arts Master simply because he was Asian, triumphing in the
    end. The moral is clear and directly applicable. Do not assume that
    because the instructor of a given school is Asian that he is, in some way,
    superior to the instructor of another school who is not. Skill in martial
    arts is not inherent to any given "race." Likewise, do not make the same
    mistake concerning the sex of an instructor. There are many very talented
    female instructors.

    Don't let yourself be distracted by a fancy school or unrelated goodies
    such as weight machines or saunas. A well kept, safe training area is one
    thing but extraneous features, though nice, ultimately only add to the
    expenses of the school. There are a good number of excellent instructors
    teaching out of their garages, basements, and back yards.

    Don't get distracted by uniforms either. Many Asian martial arts wear the
    traditional "white pajamas" gi while other martial arts have different
    uniforms and some, no uniform at all, preferring instead "street clothes" or
    comfortable, loose fitting training clothes.

    Also, don't pay too much attention to numerous trophies and medals.
    Trophies are easy to come by in martial arts competitions. On top of that
    they are inexpensive and easily purchased by unscrupulous scam artists from
    the local trophy store. Though this practice is uncommon, it has been
    known to happen.

    Don't judge a school or instructor by how much they charge. It's human
    nature to assume that a higher priced product is going to be somehow
    better, yet this is not always true in the world of Martial Arts. Some
    instructors are simply teaching for the joy of teaching and not trying to
    make a living or any real money from it (more on this in the
    rec.martial-arts FAQ). Some arts and Organizations discourage their
    instructors from trying to make money from instruction and will therefore be
    inherently less expensive. Yet other arts are the flavor du jour and suffer
    from higher demand than there are available instructors, thus making them more
    expensive. As long as the price of instruction falls within the range that
    you are willing to pay, don't worry too much about it.

    Further, don't pay too much attention to lots of certificates in Asian
    script decorating the wall, particularly if you don't read the language
    they're written in. Most instructors will display only the rank
    certificate of their top rank (or the top rank they hold in each art
    they're ranked in if they are ranked in more then one). In general, this
    should mean that there aren't many certificates displayed. With the state
    of current computer technology, it is easy to produce impressive looking
    certificates that say anything you wish them to say, even that the bearer
    is a high ranking martial artist.

    Finally, don't be overly concerned with the rank of the instructor. While
    in the early stages of training in your new art (say the first 10 years)
    you probably won't be able to tell the difference between a 3rd Degree
    Black Belt and a 9th Degree Black Belt.

    ------------------------------

    Subject: 8 - Rank

    One of the most misunderstood things about martial arts is rank. Different
    people in the martial arts world have different feelings about the use of
    ranking in the martial arts. Some feel it is all important, some that it
    is of no import whatsoever, and others that it is a valuable tool not to be
    given too much weight outside of its limited context. What you should know
    is that most martial arts have a ranking system but many do not and that
    rank within one system does not equate to skill within another system even
    though the systems may be similar. Just because you know how to drive a
    car doesn't mean you know how to operate a back hoe.

    The most common ranking systems are the Japanese and the Korean systems.

    The Japanese systems start with sub-"Black Belt" or Kyu ranks and work from
    highest to lowest as skill increases, typically from 10th Kyu up to 1st Kyu
    and then "Black Belt" or Dan rankings, from 1st Dan and going up to 9th
    Dan. 9th Dan is typically reserved for the (one) highest ranking
    instructor of the art, usually in Japan.

    The Korean system works much the same way, simply substitute "Gup" for
    "Kyu."

    You should also know that some Occidental systems have a rank system, but,
    when they do, they usually do not follow the 10th-1st sub-black belt then
    1st Dan-9th Dan ranking that Asian systems do. Frequently Occidental
    systems will rank a practitioner by number of wins in competition or a
    combination of skill level rankings and competition wins. Savate schools
    will typically operate in this manner. Other Occidental arts use an
    archaic ranking system that includes 4 or 5 ranks starting with "Scolaire"
    (Scholar) and culminating with "Maestro" (Master).

    Be aware that the color of a belt as a rank in one system does not
    translate to the same rank in another system. A "Green Belt" in one system
    is usually not the same rank as a "Green Belt" in another system. The same
    goes for Kyu/Gup ranks. As stated earlier, a Kyu/Gup rank in one system
    does not equate to the same skill as an equally numbered Kyu/Gup rank in
    another system. Simply put, you can not compare a 5th Kyu in "Karate" with
    a 5th Gup in "Taekwondo" and they probably wear different colored belts.
    At this point, it should go without saying that a "Black Belt" in one
    system isn't really comparable with a "Black Belt" in any other system. It
    only represents a certain level of skill obtained within _that_ system;
    exactly what skill level that represents is entirely up to the instructors
    who define _that_ system.

    Again, don't be overly concerned with the rank of the instructor. You
    likely will be unable to differentiate between a 3rd Degree Black Belt and
    a 9th Degree Black Belt for many years. Further, it is held by many in the
    martial arts world that you can learn a lesson from anyone, even the
    lowliest practitioner. Learn the lessons that the instructor has to offer.

    A final word of warning on the rank of the instructor. Beware claims of
    inflated or high rank. It is not unheard of for a martial artist to break
    away from his parent organization or instructor and award himself "9th Dan"
    and "create" his own art. More then one instructor has made the leap for
    3rd Dan to 9th Dan in this way with no real increase in his skill or
    teaching ability. Further, some organizations have been known to grant
    additional rank to instructors for "services to the art" such as opening a
    school in an area previously unreached by that art or for some other notable
    promotion of the art.

    Beware any school where the instructor seems uneasy about you talking to
    the students without the instructor standing right there. It's also not a
    good sign if the instructor seems nervous, self-conscious, or hostile,
    about you watching him/her teach, or if the students themselves seem
    fearful or nervous around the instructor. Caveat emptor.

    Finally, the natural question asked is, "How fast?" ...How soon will you
    get your coveted Black Belt? How long before you can "defend" yourself?
    How much time before you can kill everyone in your neighborhood without
    breaking a sweat?

    ...We don't know...

    Or rather, to be more precise, it depends. Each statement is a different
    goal, though they all seem to be related. Again, a "Black Belt" means
    different things to different martial arts systems. To some it means
    "you've got the basics and are now ready for a little bit of a challenge."
    To others, "You are competent in the system enough to be let out without a
    chaperone." To others still, "you know enough to be able to defend against
    the unskilled or moderately skilled." And to others yet, "you're an
    'expert' in the same way that a new trade skill grad is an 'expert' but not
    the same as a 20 years experience 'expert'." Remember, "Black Belt" is only
    meaningful within the context of the system you're studying. That being
    said, it is not unreasonable to expect that, with modest effort, the
    coveted "Black Belt" may be achieved within 4 to 7 years of practice. Many
    systems track, even require minimums of training or "mat" time between
    promotions. It is thought to be more meaningful to talk of the number of hours
    spent "on the mat" (ie, training), than to speak of the "number of years."
    Simply put, if Dick spends 2 hours a day, twice a week, training to achieve
    "Black Belt", and Jane spends 4 hours a day, 5 days a week, then Dick
    is going to sweat for five long years to rack up 1040 total hours of
    training, but Jane will have done that by the end of her first year.

    As to the issue of being able to "defend yourself," that all depends upon
    the skill level of the person or persons attacking you, your skill level,
    weapons involved, and a myriad of other variables. The stories of students
    with one class under their belts defending themselves are true, likewise
    the stories of "Black Belts" being beaten up. There are just so many
    variables involved that the question is near meaningless. However, the
    more diligently you train and the more time you put into your training, the
    more likely that, if the unhappy time ever comes, you will be able to
    successfully "defend" yourself.

    ------------------------------

    Subject: 9 - When You Visit

    Here are some general guidelines to consider when visiting the schools you
    have an interest in.

    First, call ahead. Make sure that visitors are welcome. Some schools are
    particular about what classes visitors are allowed to watch. Advanced
    classes may be "off limits" to the public as well as "private lessons." It
    should be a "red flag" if the school will not allow you to watch _any_
    classes before paying money though. Further, some schools feel that simply
    watching a few classes can not adequately give you a feel for their art.
    They may encourage you to take an "introductory" class (sometimes at no
    charge).

    Next, be aware that most martial arts schools have rules of etiquette.
    This almost always includes not wearing shoes inside the school or in
    certain areas of the school. They will often provide a rack or shelf for
    shoes just outside of the "restricted" areas. Never step onto the mat in
    your street shoes. This can track dirt, pebbles, gum, grease, and other
    substances onto the area where people may soon be having their faces
    smooshed.

    Also, be aware that many schools will have beginning and ending ceremonies
    that they may ask you to stand during. Some may ask you to bow whenever
    crossing the threshold of the school.

    When you go to observe a class or visit with the instructor, wear clean,
    casual clothes.

    If you've been invited to join the class for a training session, or think
    it's a possibility you might be asked to join once you show up, then bring
    a t-shirt, shorts, and loose sweat pants to work out in. If you have
    martial arts experience in some other (or even the same) style, and the
    uniforms are roughly equivalent shapes, it would probably be acceptable to
    wear your uniform, however it may be considered extremely rude, or at least
    confusing, to wear any belt colour other than white. Ask the instructor
    about what to do on this one. It might be that your red belt is just a
    pretty ornament in their school, or it might indicate that you are the
    respected founder of an acknowledged style. They may loan you a white belt,
    request that you wear none at all, or not care in the least.

    As always, be polite. If someone offers a hand to shake, then take it. If
    someone bows, return the bow; try to emulate the bow they give you. Be
    quiet during the class. Don't make noise or draw unnecessary attention.
    If you are visiting the school in the company of a friend, don't converse
    with each other. If you must do so, keep conversation to a minimum and in
    a hushed tone. The object is to not interrupt the class or distract the
    students who have paid good money for their instruction.

    Further, show up early, before class starts. This will give you a chance
    to observe "pre-class" interactions important to understanding the
    atmosphere of the school. It will also give you the opportunity to talk
    with the instructor and students. Write down a list of questions you want
    to ask and bring it with you. If any other questions occur to you as you
    watch the class, write those down so you can remember to ask the instructor
    after the class is over.

    As a general rule of shopping etiquette, don't discuss the other schools
    you've been to or heard about. If you must discuss other schools, be sure
    to avoid derogatory remarks about them. Avoid discussing the quality of
    their instruction, etc. If you are asked about any prior experience in
    martial arts you might have, go ahead and tell the instructor what your
    experience is. This will help him understand what you know and may give him
    a base to start your training from. Avoid comparing the two arts.

    Finally, don't try to impress the instructor or students with your
    knowledge of martial arts or foreign languages. It usually backfires.

    ------------------------------

    Subject: 10 - Should I Study More Than One at a Time

    It is not uncommon for more then one Martial Art to interest a potential
    student. The logical question is, "Can I" or "Should I study them both?"

    This is a matter of some debate and opinions differ. The prevailing wisdom is
    a bit of a compromise. It is generally recommended not to study more then one
    art at a time or, failing that, to get a good foundation in one art before
    branching out, or "cross training," in another. The feeling is that the two
    arts are likely to conflict with each other. They may require differing ways
    of moving your body, differing postures, differing positions, and offer
    differing solutions to given situations. These differences could serve to
    confuse and frustrate the new student as he endeavors to apply what he has
    learned in his classes.

    After you have developed a good base in one art, you can then explore other
    arts without undue confusion or overlap.

    There are, however, some noted exceptions to consider. You may want to
    consider cross training in arts that have very little overlap, that complement
    each other well, or that fill in gaps you may feel are missing.

    Another consideration is the instructors. Some instructors encourage cross
    training or even teach multiple arts themselves while other instructors
    strongly discourage cross training and may be upset to find a student cross
    training. If cross training interests you, you should talk with the
    instructors of each art to see how they feel about it before you start taking
    classes there. They may already have a program in place or may be able to
    make recommendations.

    Further, cross training, even if it is advantageous and encouraged will
    usually slow your advancement in each art far more then if you were to
    dedicate all of your training time to just one.

    Finally, as hinted at earlier, you should consider your personal resources.
    Can you afford to pay for two different classes and all the associated
    fees for each? Not only money, but, more importantly, your time resource.
    You will need to dedicate a certain amount of time to the practice of each
    art, both in class and out, in order to see advancement. Do you have the
    time to dedicate to each?

    Some examples of arts simultaneously trained include Tae Kwon Do with Hapkido,
    Muay Thai with Brazillian Ju Jitsu, and Boxing with Judo.

    ------------------------------

    Subject: 11 - The Dark Side of Martial Arts

    Though it is touched upon in other portions of this Guide, it's worth spending
    some time looking specifically at the dark, seamy underbelly of Martial Arts.

    This is the place where people take advantage of you.

    McDojo's

    First, let's look at the dreaded "McDojo." These are usually schools who's
    sole goal is to part you from your money without ever imparting any real
    Martial Arts knowledge. These can sometimes be difficult to detect since part
    of the successful money-student separation is to convince the student that
    useful information is, in fact, being taught while devising ever more ways to
    implement the money-student separation.

    This separation is often achieved by having fee after fee after fee and
    required expenditures on and on and on. For instance, schools that require
    you to buy only their branded uniforms and gear, require you to sign long
    contracts, have no "move refund" option in their contract, or high-pressure
    sales pitches. Another common tactic is to have numerous belt test
    requirements and sub-ranks, all with a fee, non-refundable if the student
    "flunks" his test. An example would be a school which has students ranked,
    "Second Stripe, Decided, Green Belt" or similar. These schools may also
    require weekend training trips.

    Besides the red flags listed above, a few other's that may indicate a "McDojo"
    include: Any school that promises you a Black Belt in under 3 years or
    routinely produces Black Belts in 2 years. Any school which seems to have
    overly young or inexperienced experts (usually "Black Belts" or "Dan ranks") -
    for example a school recently made the news, noteworthy because they had just
    promoted a three year old toddler to "Black Belt" and they had a five year old
    child as a 2nd Dan (second degree) "Black Belt."

    Scams

    Another variation on the McDojo effect are Scams. The number and variety of
    scams are infinite, as any grifter can tell you. However, the same grifter
    will also tell you that the most effective usually seem to be variation on a
    few basic themes. In the Martial Arts world, one of these themes is the "Study
    at Home" scam. One reason this is such an effective scam is that it's very
    similar in appearance to legitimate training aids. The scam usually takes the
    guise of an advertisement promising to impart vast knowledge and unbeatable
    fighting skills with the purchase of a home study system, usually consisting of
    Video Tapes or DVDs. The home practitioner then "studies" these videos, takes
    a test, sometimes written, sometimes by video taping himself and then mails it
    back to the originator for "grading" along with a sum of money. Naturally "rank"
    is issued (usually the coveted "Black Belt") as well as a lead in for
    additional "training." Of course, the consumers have become somewhat more savvy
    and this exact scam takes in fewer marks then it once did. Another variation of
    the scam is to simply not offer the "rank by mail," which is a dead give away.
    Instead, the same "be an unbeatable killer" advertising is used to sell the
    video material. A third variation of this particular scam involves actual "live"
    training. A seminar is offered from which the attendees are guaranteed rank
    (often teaching rank) in a new and unbeatable system. These seminars are usually
    short, only a couple of hours, and often attempt to make some tenuous link to
    military combatives such as the Marines or the Special Forces (linking to the
    "unbeatable" skill of military groups is another common "hook").

    Another variation of martial arts scams are questionable training aids. These
    are devices or machines which, through their use, supposedly will confer
    awesome capabilities to their users. They frequently take the form of exercise
    aids with vastly exaggerated claimed benefits. Occasionally these devices can
    take the form of a machine or appliance which will "teach" your body to perform
    some devastating "secret" technique.

    The reason these scams are so successful is that they so closely mirror
    legitimate training aids. Video's, books, and seminars, exercise devices, even
    weekend training camps, are all tools used by legitimate martial artists to
    enhance their skills and improve their understanding. The critical difference
    is that the scams typically promise great gains, impressive skills, or rank
    for comparatively little investment of time.

    Cults

    Martial Arts hold a nearly unique place in society. They are, at most basic
    not related to any social, moral, or religious principles. They are merely
    "martial," or "pertaining to war or combat skills." Yet, at the same time,
    many are drenched in philosophy and the "mental" benefits cited range from
    improved self esteem all the way through metaphysical abilities. Simply put,
    mysticism in Martial Arts is not only accepted, but often EXPECTED. Coupled
    with the business or organizational structure of many Martial Arts, this
    produces a prime candidate for cult like organizations to spring up. All of
    the required markers or precepts are easily applied. For instance, the
    required attitude to "trust without question" a leader or central authority
    is readily accepted behavior in many Martial Arts. Simply put, the instructor
    knows what he's talking about, you should listen to what he says even if you
    do not understand why. Most often this is a safety or training issue. The
    experienced instructor knows that a certain way is safest or most likely to
    produce results. That alone is no more proof that a certain Martial Art is a
    cult than the requirement to follow orders instantly and without question is
    evidence that the Army is a cult. However, it does place an instructor in a
    position of power to abuse emotionally vulnerable people. Though fortunately
    rare, cult like indicators have been seen including: 1) Complete emotional
    dependence upon a central authority figure 2) Accepting without question
    directives from a central authority figure 3) Isolation of group members and
    restriction of their association to other group members exclusively, including
    communal living and breaking ties with family and close friends 4) Single
    minded recruitment into the group 5) Relinquishing control of personal assets
    to the central authority figure. Of course, this is a short and perforce
    slightly vague list. If you suspect someone may be becoming involved in a cult
    of any sort, whether Martial Arts or otherwise, research the organization
    thoroughly and consult a licensed mental health care professional.

    Two examples of Martial Arts organizations that closely match cult profiles
    are: Chung Moo Do, and Kanzen Kenpo

    Sexual Predators - Pedophiles and Power Abusers

    Another area of concern for many people is that of sexual abusers. This is
    generally of greatest concern to parents. How can you know that the Instructor
    is not a Pedophile? The Martial Arts world frequently generate exactly the
    recipe needed for a Pedophile to successfully engage in his preferred
    perversion: unsupervised access to children. In fact, it's gone one better.
    The instructor is, by default, placed in a position of authority and trust for
    the child. This danger can be doublely compounded by some standard activities
    associated with Martial Arts such as weekend seminars in remote or isolated
    areas and out of town, over-night, competitions. Fortunately the safe-guards
    for children in the Martial Arts are the same as for any other activity.
    Check the background of a potential instructor. You can check with the local
    Police Department for complaints or criminal history (a wise idea whatever the
    case) as well as consulting databases (many of them "on-line") listing Sexual
    Predators. Ensure that the child is never alone and unsupervised. Go with
    your child to his classes (be sure to sit quietly to the side; take reading
    material or a quiet hobby). Many schools even have a special area where
    parents can sit and watch the class. Whenever your child has an out of town or
    over-night function, accompany them or have a trusted adult accompany them.
    Go with your child to watch his competitions. It's an enjoyable spectator
    event and will show your child that you support his interests. Finally, pay
    attention to your child. Observe changes in behavior that might indicate
    emotional trauma such as withdrawing from friends and family, hostility, or
    depression. Listen to your child and talk with them about the dangers of the
    world and what is and is not acceptable conduct from others. For further
    tips and advice consult your local Police Department.

    Sexual Power Abusers are not generally thought of in the context of a Martial
    Arts instructor. While the idea of a Boss at a work place or a Professor at
    a University being a sexual power abuser is fairly well accepted, often the
    idea of applying the same context to other authority figures is overlooked.
    Unfortunately some Martial Arts instructors have used their positions as an
    authority figure to prey sexually on their students. This is a difficult
    subject. On the one hand, most would agree that it is unethical for an
    instructor to use his position to influence or compel a student into a
    relationship with him. On the other hand, if a student is an adult and is
    consenting, what harm? The Martial Arts world is replete with stories of
    couples who met as Martial Arts instructor and student and then pursued a
    romantic relationship successfully outside of the school. Further, some
    students are actually attracted to the power and authority of a Martial Arts
    instructor, much as some are attracted to athletes or politicians. The best
    advice for adults is to be very careful and use common sense. Naturally, if
    an instructor (or even a fellow student) is making unwanted advances, tell
    them that you are not interested. Be polite but clear and firm. You're not
    interested in pursuing a relationship beyond mutual adherents of a Martial
    Art. If the unwanted advances continue, your road narrows somewhat. If the
    advances are from a fellow student or Assistant Instructor, go to the Primary
    Instructor and explain the situation. Ask him to help you and to talk to the
    offending person. Chances are this has happened before and the instructor may
    not have known about it. Regardless, most instructors are wary of law suits.
    If, on the other hand, the unwelcome advances are from the Chief Instructor or
    Owner then your only recourse may be to simply leave that school and seek
    instruction elsewhere. You may be able to file a complaint if the school is a
    member of a larger national or international organization but do not count on
    this curing anything. Some organizations may take steps to chastise or even
    revoke the instructor's membership, other organizations may do nothing. Unless
    a crime, such as rape has occurred, the legal system will probably be little
    help. Over all, your best option may simply be to seek instruction elsewhere.

    ------------------------------

    Subject: 12 - What Kind of Martial Art Suits Me

    So you still don't know quite what martial art might suit your desires
    best. Won't take 'no' for an answer huh? OK. Well here are some ideas
    that may help you narrow your search.

    What are you looking for in a Martial Art? If you know what you want out
    of it, you'll have a better idea of what "kind" of art to look for.
    Typical answers include:
    Better Physical Fitness
    Street Useful Self Defense
    Sport Competition
    Striking Techniques (Punching/Kicking)
    Joint Lock Techniques
    Grappling Techniques (some similarities to wrestling)
    Pressure Point Techniques
    Traditional/Oriental Weapons
    Street/Common Weapons
    Mental & Emotional/Spiritual Development
    Attractiveness/Fluidity of Movements (this is very subjective)
    Traditional "Feel"
    Speed of Advancement/Ease of Learning Techniques

    Brief Descriptions of these:

    Better Physical Fitness:
    Some people's primary motivation in a Martial Art (MA) is improving their
    Physical Fitness. To them, if they can learn a MA while getting fit, so
    much the better.

    Street Useful Self Defense:
    A primary motivation for many is the ability to truly be able to defend
    themselves in a street confrontation against typical street techniques and
    weapons.

    Sport Competition:
    Many arts contain a greater or lesser degree of competition and some will
    encourage their students to compete in local and national MA sporting
    events in competition restricted to that particular MA and in various open
    competitions. Awards and medals are sometimes given. Arts that emphasize
    competition too much are thought by some to sacrifice some of the self
    defense value to ingrained competition safeties. Arts that are well known
    for their sport value include Tae Kwon Do (TKD), Judo and Kendo.

    Striking Techniques:
    This is more a facet of a MA and typically describes punching and kicking
    techniques. Some arts emphasize this to a greater or lesser degree with
    some focusing on it almost to the exclusion of all other techniques and
    with some teaching nearly none of it. Arts that are well known for their
    striking techniques include most Korean arts like Tang Soo Do and Tae Kwon
    Do, and Okinawan/Japanese Karate.

    Joint Lock Techniques:
    This is more a facet of a MA and typically describes techniques that lock,
    restrict, manipulate, or sometimes break and dislocate the joints of the
    aggressor. Some arts emphasize this, to a greater or lesser degree, with
    some focusing on it almost to the exclusion of all other techniques and
    with some teaching nearly none of it. In arts that teach a variety of
    other techniques, joint lock techniques are typically thought of as an
    "advanced" teaching and are typically reserved for higher ranks. Arts that
    are well known for their joint lock techniques include Aikido, Pencak
    Silat, and Japanese Jui Jitsu (such as Aikijitsu and others).

    Grappling Techniques:
    This is more a facet of a MA and typically describes techniques that are
    similar to wresting in many ways and include throws and groundfighting
    techniques (what to do when one or more combatants are at least partially
    on the ground and not standing). Some arts emphasize this to a greater or
    lesser degree with some focusing on it almost to the exclusion of all other
    techniques and with some teaching nearly none of it. Arts that are well
    known for their Grappling/Groundfighting are Judo, Brazilian Jui Jitsu, and
    some other types of Jui Jitsu.

    Pressure Point Techniques:
    This is more a facet of a MA and typically describes techniques that
    manipulate pressure points on the human body. These "points" can in some
    cases cause a great deal of pain and some practitioner say that Pressure
    Point manipulation can slow down the aggressor, cause limbs to go numb,
    stun or even kill an aggressor outright (though this is an extremely
    advanced technique not taught to everyone and is still open to controversy
    in the MA and Medical world). Some arts emphasize this to a greater or
    lesser degree with some focusing on it almost to the exclusion of all other
    techniques and with some teaching nearly none of it. Arts that are well
    known for their Pressure Point techniques include some types of Kung Fu
    (there are over 50 well know Kung Fu forms), and some types of Jui Jitsu.

    Traditional/Oriental Weapons:
    This is more a facet of a MA and typically describes techniques with
    weapons not considered to be militarily effective, or street convenient by
    today's standards. These weapons would include sword, spear, bow, and
    staff. Some arts emphasize this to a greater or lesser degree with some
    focusing on it almost to the exclusion of all other techniques and with
    some teaching nearly none of it. Arts that are well known for their
    Traditional/Oriental Weapons techniques include many forms of Kung Fu, many
    Okinawan Karate forms, and some Japanese forms such as Kendo, Kenjutsu, and
    Iaido.

    Street/Common Weapons:
    This is more a facet of a MA and typically describes techniques with
    weapons considered to still be militarily effective, or street convenient
    by today's standards. These weapons would include knife, club,
    cane/half-staff. Some arts emphasize this to a greater or lesser degree
    with some focusing on it almost to the exclusion of all other techniques
    and with some teaching nearly none of it. Arts that are well known for
    their Street/Common Weapons techniques include many forms of Kung Fu, many
    Okinawan Karate forms, and some Japanese forms, and especially Indonesian
    forms such as Pencak Silat, and Philippines forms such as Kali, Arnis, and
    Escrima.

    Mental & Emotional/Spiritual Development:
    This is often considered a strong benefit of taking MA's. Many instructors
    advertise their MA directly to parents as a way of increasing children's
    Self Confidence, Socialization Skills, and Personal Well Being. Spiritual
    development is a strong component of many but not all MA's. The Japanese
    word "Do" (when applied to a MA) is considered to mean "way" or "path" to
    Spiritual Enlightenment or personal understanding (Koreans arts ending in
    "Do" have a similar meaning). In general, any Japanese art ending in Do
    will have to a greater or lesser degree a Spiritual or Self Improvement
    aspect, while Japanese arts ending in Jitsu are primarily concerned with
    martial abilities and will have little or no concept of Spiritual
    Enlightenment or Self Development, except as is important and added by the
    instructor. This is largely dependent upon the instructor in any system.
    Arts known for their emphasis on Spiritual Development include many forms
    of Kung Fu, especially Shaolin Kung Fu, taiji and certain Japanese "Zen"
    martial arts such as the Aikikai form of Aikido. (note: lots of
    generalizations here)

    Attractiveness/Fluidity of Movements:
    This is one that's as hard to pin down as the Spiritual aspect. Suffice it
    to say that some arts just look prettier than others. A master in most any
    MA is going to have a fluidity and grace of movement, however that is not
    always true of the students. As a gross generalization, typically,
    "circular" arts will appear more fluid and graceful than "linear" arts. A
    simplistic definition of circular vs. linear is that each variation tends
    to have a greater emphasis on movements and techniques in its "category."
    Thus circular arts will tend to have a lot of sweeping circular and rounded
    movements, while linear arts will tend to move in more direct lines. Also
    as a gross oversimplification, linear arts tend to be "hard" (direct and
    force/impact oriented) while circular arts tend to be much more "soft"
    (redirect and control oriented). One more gross oversimplification,
    circular techniques tend to be more difficult to master than linear.
    Striking arts tend to be more linear and Joint Lock & Grappling arts tend
    to be more circular. Examples of largely circular arts are Aikido and
    certain Kung Fu forms (Baguazhang / Pa Kua Chang). Examples of largely
    linear arts include Tae Kwon Do and Karate. An example of a very exciting
    and fluid art is Chinese Wu Shu.

    Traditional "Feel":
    This describes the feel of the "weight of tradition" that is attractive to
    some Martial Artists. Some MA players like to feel like they are
    participating in a tradition thousands of years old and readily accept
    ancillary aspects of MA study such as bowing and foreign terminology. Most
    MA's have an aspect of "tradition" to them, especially the Asian arts
    (i.e., Chinese, Korean, Okinawan, Japanese) and almost all MA's have a code
    of etiquette to follow while in the training hall. Frequently there are
    rituals involved, some with religious significance, some merely as a show of
    respect for the founder or the instructor. Some MA's require a uniform and
    some (such as Capoeira or Pencak Silat) may not, at the instructor's
    discretion. In general, how "traditional" an art feels is almost entirely
    dependent upon the local instructor. Any given art has instructors who
    prefer an informal environment or a more formal one. Generally, the
    further back the roots of the art stretch, the more instructors there are
    that will prefer a formal or semi-formal environment though this is
    anything but a hard rule. Further, societal origins will tend to have an
    effect on the formality of the training environment. Japanese arts for
    instance tend to be more formal in nature as the Japanese society has a
    long standing history of formality in the minutia whereas arts that are
    American in inception (there are a few) will tend to be very informal since
    the American society is a largely informal society.

    Speed of Advancement/Ease of Learning Techniques:
    There are really two separate issues here, though many people equate them.
    A common question is "how long must I study before I know the art?" or
    alternately "how long must I study before I get a Black Belt?" Whereas,
    another common question is "how long must I study before I can defend
    myself?" The nature of these two questions is different. Most people
    equate Black Belt with having achieved Martial Arts godhood. This couldn't
    be further from the truth. The actuality is, typically, Black Belt (or
    First Dan) is where a student is finally gaining a base level of competency
    and understanding in his art. One description that I recently read was to
    think of a Black Belt as if it were a Bachelors degree from college. It is
    an expert level, but not a Doctorate level, or even a Master's Degree.
    Those are more typically associated with higher Dan ranks. This is an apt
    description since in most reputable MA's, it should take between 3 and 5
    years practice to be awarded a Black Belt. It is not unheard of for a
    reputable school to produce an occasional black belt in 2 to 3 years,
    however, this person is either unusually dedicated and practices on a
    nearly daily basis or is a Martial Arts Prodigy. Any school that promises
    you a Black Belt in under 3 years or routinely produces Black Belts in 2
    years is what's sometimes referred to as a "Black Belt Factory" or a school
    that "Sells Black Belts" (McDojo) and should be avoided. That being said,
    the question still remains "how long must I study before I can defend
    myself?" If home defense is your only goal, buy a gun and learn to safely
    use it. You can become proficient in the safe use of firearms in a far shorter
    time than a MA, and firearms are typically much more effective. Why do
    you think the Military uses them? Or perhaps you should buy a dog.
    Statistics show that less than 5% of homes that own _any_ sort of dog will
    _ever_ be burglarized (this includes those hairless rat-dogs the
    Chihuahua). If this is not an alternative for you or if you are also
    concerned about protecting yourself where you can not, for various reasons,
    take your gun or your dog, then perhaps a MA is for you. How much study it
    takes for you to become effective at defending yourself is a component of
    many different things, including the art its self, your aptitude at
    learning it, and the abilities of the person attacking you. The stories of
    Black Belts being beat up by untrained drunks are true. And also, the
    stories of new students using the MA to successfully defend themselves
    against rapists and murderers are also true. Whatever the case for your
    aptitude, the more effort and practice you put into learning your chosen
    MA, the better you will be at defending yourself and your family.

    ------------------------------

    Subject: 13 - Disclaimer and Copyright Notice

    Some answers given may reflect personal biases of the author and
    contributors. The answers contained herein pertain to discussions on the
    rec.martial-arts group, and are by no means exhaustive.

    The martial arts Newbie Guide was created from an outline of an earlier
    document, also titled "The Newbie Guide" by Jeff D. Pipkins as well as
    information from the creator of this document, Kirk Lawson (additional
    contributors listed at end). It is the intention that this document be a
    companion document to the current rec.martial-arts FAQ. The author, Kirk
    Lawson, grants rights to update, maintain, modify, and distribute this
    document provided that you abide by the "no profit" restrictions detailed
    hereafter.

    You are specifically granted the right to distribute this document in any
    storage or display format including, but not limited to, HTML, RTF, .DOC,
    PDF, or direct telepathic transfer.

    You are granted the right to copy, store, modify, and distribute this
    document provided that a) This Disclaimer, Copyright, and any version
    history or creator/contributor attributions are included. b) That you
    charge no monies for the distribution of this document, excepting a nominal
    charge for the cost of media upon which it may be distributed. If you wish
    to include this document in any for-profit publication or to include it in
    any pay-per or price metered medium or delivery, you may only do so with
    the express permission of the original document author, Kirk Lawson.
    Basically, if you want to modify or distribute this document for free,
    fine, go ahead and do it, but if you want to make money off of it, I want
    my cut.

    Kirk Lawson: lklawson@heapy.com or lawson@dayton.net

    Additional Contributors:
    Lauren Radner - lradner@us.ibm.com
    Steve Gombosi - sog@amaterasu.scd.ucar.edu
    Kevin Hill - Kevin.Hill@jdsu.com
    Matthew Weigel - mcweigel+@cs.cmu.edu
    Ted Bennett - weirdwolf@ntlworld.com
    Neil Gendzwill - gendzwil@sedsystems.ca

    ========================================================
     

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