==Old historical records on Taekkyeon-Yetbeob== The medieval Korea had a street fighting game called Pyeonssaum (편싸움), which was sometimes done with weapons, sometimes done with bare hands. This barehand Pyunssaum (including horizontal-fist swing-punch without rotating fist) is taught by Taekkyeon Yetbeop (택견 옛법). Similarly, Korea also had a street fighting game called Nanjangbaksi (난장박시) inside a game called Sibak/Baksi (시박/박시). Nalparam (날파람) was also a Korean street fighting game that hit with any body part including punch. Pyeonssaum, Sibak (Nanjangbaksi), Nalparam continued in Korea even until the early 20th century; there are continuous historical data made in records. Joseon-musa-yeongwoongjeon (조선무사영웅전) also recorded bare hand Pyeonssaum and Taekkyeon 100 years ago. http://www.culturecontent.com/content/contentView.do?search_div=CP_THE&search_div_id=CP_THE014&cp_code=cp0406&index_id=cp04060043&content_id=cp040600430001 Taekkyeon has always been teaching both regular Taekkyeon & street fighting Taekkyeon-Yetbeob which hits with any body part including powerful punches with historical Korean traits like shoulder (& torso) rotation, Yongryuk (stacking speed & power in motion), (no fist spin) horizontal fist. Nalparam is a form of Pyunssaum, Sibak (Nanjangbaksi of Bak-si, which is Si-bak) which hits with any body part including punches, kicks, headbutt. Street fighting styles (including punching & kicking) Nalparam & Sibak are taught by Taekkyeon like street fighting style Taekkyeon-Yetbeop is taught by Taekkyeon in South Korea. Taekkyeon's street fighting style Nalparam, Sibak (Nanjangbaksi), Yetbeop are likely created by being inspired by Kung Fu & Muyedobotongji Gwonbeop with little connection to Subak. An important historical record exists on Korean street fighting game, which is the Prize Fight record in 1895 by Henry Savage Landor in his book "Corea", "the combatants generally fight with their fists, but, like the French, are much given to use their knees and feet as well in the contest." https://i.imgur.com/i03RApC.png "분단되지 않았다면 날파람도 이어졌으리라. 다행히 1960년 초, 북한의 계정희 교수에 의해 개성에서 발굴된 것이 있다. 논문에서 택견 기능자 발굴이라는 말을 하는데, 북한학계에서는 날파람도 택견으로 보기에 그런 것이다." Translation: "If Korea was not split, South Korea would also have Nalparam. Fortunately, in the early 1960's, North Korea's professor Jungheui Gye found Nalparam artist. In his report, he described that Taekkyeon artist was found. This is because North Korean academia considers Nalparam also as a Taekkyeon." https://mookas.com/news/11664 Nalparam is taught by Taekkyeon. Sibak is Taekkyeon-Yetbeob. North Korea also describes Nalparam to be cross-training Charyuk/Kihapsul/Kiaijutsu which includes Breaking/Tameshiwari. Regardless of how Breaking's system is for China & Japan, Breaking belonged to sidewalk performance art, power circus, power magic to Korean. In medieval Jaemulbo book, Sibak was recorded to be also Taekyun, which would mean also being included in Taekyun. https://mookas.com/news/11305 "시박은 '서로 치는 것은 씨름의 일종인데 역(亦) 탁견'이라고 되어 있다." Translation: "Sibak's recorded, 'hitting each other (Sibak) is a type of wrestling, this is also Taekkyeon'." "시박? 낯선 이름이다. 위의 재물보에 수박과 함께 소개되고 있는 조선 고유의 체술 이었다." Translation: "Sibak? It's an unfamiliar name. Above in Jaemulbo, it's a Korean martial art introduced together with Subak." Murayama Jijun recorded Baksi & Nanjangbaksi in 1941, which were quite different from Taekyun. https://mookas.com/news/11150 "경북군위군의 군사(軍士)훈련이었던 박시(재물보상의 ‘시박’으로 여겨진다. 1941년, 무라야마지준의 글에도 언급되고 있다. 수백명의 사람들이 팔짱을 끼고 서로 어깨로 밀어 붙여 진(陳)을 뚫는 것이다. 나중에 동네 왈패들이 신작로에 모여 난장박시라 하는 패싸움을 했었다)등이 있었다." Translation: Gyungbook military training Baksi, etc existed. Seems Sibak from Jaemulbo. 1941's Murayama Jijun also mentions this. Hundreds of people, arms locked, push each other with shoulders to penetrate formation. Later, town thugs gather on the road to do team street fighting called Nanjangbaksi." (Korean sometimes reverse the word order, like Baksi & Sibak.) Also, in 1930's reputable Korean newspaper, it describes that Taekkyeon was recorded by Muyedobotongji as Gwonbeop including hand techniques. 1930's newspaper recorded that Taekkyeon has contents to be recorded as Muyedobotongji Gwonbeop. Although there may be discrepancies between the military version Gwonbeop and the civilian version Sibak, the newspaper corroborated that Taekkyeon has such contents within Taekkyeon. https://i.imgur.com/dKf5yB5.jpg Like Subak had Subakdaeo club to train, Nalparam also had a club to train. "1935년 7월 22일자 동아일보를 보자. [평양]지난 17일 평양서에서는 부내 창전리에서 주소부정의 현기한, 이오 외 십이명을 검거하야 엄중취조중이라는데 그들은 약 일주일전부터 기림리(산림리) 신궁앞 부근에서 부랑배 백수십여명을 모아노코 "날파람이"(망나니 짓이란 의미)를 연습하며". Translation: "Let's see 1935's July 22nd Dongailbo Newspaper. On the 17th, in Pyungyang's Changjeonli, Gihan Hyun, Oh Yi, etc 12 men were arrested and interrogated. They have gathered over a hundred thugs at Girimli (Sanlimli) Singoong's front, practicing Nalparami." https://mookas.com/news/11199 https://mookas.com/news/11664 A direct interview with Dukgi Song was recorded in Munyejinheung by Bohyung Lee, published in 1984 by Munyejinheungwon on Volume 11 Number 1 page 67 (이보형, 문예진흥 제 11권 1호, 문예진흥원, 1984.2, p.67, 이보형이 송덕기 옹에게 췌록한 내용). "누상동에는 '장칼'이라는 장사가 있어 키도 크고 힘도 좋고 '복장지르기', '가슴치기'등 택견솜씨가 좋았다." Translation: "Nusangdong had a strongman named Jangkal. He was tall & strong; he was good at Taekyun techniques particularly Bokjangjireugi (Front Stomp Kick), Gaseumchigi (Frontal Chest Slap, slapping chest at front), etc." Dukgi Song testified directly about frontal slap in Taekkyeon. "이보형이 송덕기 옹에게 췌록한 내용". Translation: "the content recorded by Bohyung Lee from direct interview with Dukgi Song." http://www.culturecontent.com/content/contentView.do?search_div=CP_THE&search_div_id=CP_THE014&cp_code=cp0406&index_id=cp04060046&content_id=cp040600460001 https://i.imgur.com/O85h9KH.jpg The same interview & the same book (by Munyejinheungwon & Bohyung Lee, 1984, Munyejinheung Volume 11 Number 1 page 67) includes Dukgi Song's direct testimony how Taekyun Yetbub broke jaw with 1 slap to the jaw as well as his testimony how Taekkyeon had frontal chest slap. Sibak (Nanjangbaksi) & Nalparam are street fighting rule martial arts including punching & kicking just like Taekkyeon-Yetbeop. Other than Sibak & Nalparam which are taught by Taekkyeon like South Korea's Taekkyeon-Yetbeop, there's also another traditional Korean martial art in street fighting rule including punching & kicking. There's a Korean martial art called Taegyeok. From the phonetic similarity, it is speculated to be related to Taekkyeon (particularly Taekkyeon-Yetbeop). Taegyeok's original textbook was drawn between 1920's & 1940's, but the currently existing Taegyeok textbook was redrawn in the late 1950's. The age of 1950's Taegyeok textbook was verified by professors and specialists in managing old documents. Taegyeok & its 1950's textbook have been in Northern Jeonla's Gimje, which is a distant away from where Karate (Tode) was taught in 1950's South Korea (also away from 1960's earlier Taekwondo gyms). http://www.segye.com/view/20081112003370 ==Taekkyeon Myths & Facts== There's a Taekkyeon myth today that it is a kicking game. This is because Taekkyeon hasn't been a popular sport in South Korea while Taekwondo predominantly took Taekkyeon's place as an ethnic sport. Taekwondo originates from Gwonbeop (Mas Oyama wrote in his book "Karate for a million people" that Korean Gwonbeop existed even then, which Byungin Yoon's nickname Gyungnong 18ki, meaning Muyedobotongji Gwonbeop, corroborates) & Karate. However, Taekwondo has been putting in efforts to take a place as an ethnic sport in Korea. As a result, Taekkyeon has been known to the most people in the public through Taekwondo's rendition of Taekkyeon which is from indirect information via bits and pieces of records on Taekkyeon particularly in regards to kicking references. In reality, there are 2 sets of games in Taekkyeon: regular competition Taekkyeon & Taekkeyon-Yetbeop. Regular Taekkyeon is a throwing wrestling game with kicks allowed. Taekkyeon-Yetbeop is a street fighting rule full contact style similar to Nalparam & Sibak including punching & kicking. Nalparam & Sibak are also taught by Taekkyeon whether that version of Taekkyeon is a set of 2 games like South Korea (regular Taekkyeon & Taekkyeon-Yetbeop) or just 1 game (Nalparam & Nanjangbaksi). ==Subak Myths & Facts== There are Subak myths today that Subak slaps with palm only or that Subak slaps side (like cheeks, half-frontal by 45 degrees but half-side) only. There are a couple reasons for such myths. 1. Korea has gone through social upheavals during the Japanese occupation of Korea 100 years ago. There have been some disconnections in traditional facts being taught by the scholars from its previous generations. 2. Subak has been extinct for 300 years in Korea. No one learned Subak as a sport or as a history. 3. Subak's name means "clap", which some people claim to suggest palm or side-hitting for the sport. 4. Subak has a cousin-sport named Subyuk which slaps with palms only. In the real historical records, Subak had punch whether as a real-life application (& also certain game Tagwon application) of palm-Subak or Subak game itself having punches. Even Subyuk had a nickname "fist", which corroborates such records. Also, today's Korean Subak Federation (Daehan-subak-hyeobhoe) is operated by a North Korean descendant. (North Korea's Songdo still had Subak even until recently although Subak was extinct in the rest of Korea.) They still teach Subak even today; they teach frontal slap (slapping front) & punches in Subak even today. As a corroboration, Subak Dance, Taekkyeon, Subyuk also have frontal slaps. Subak Dance is a valuable historical record that recorded Subak moves as a dance including slapping dance partner's chest. Subak Dance has passed down in Manchuria & North Korea. All those sports & activities corroborate the same details about Subak.