Taekkyeon is a wrestling with kicking in soft-contact. Even 1920's reputable newspaper recorded water-Taekkyeon is done by throwing the opponent. https://i.imgur.com/dKf5yB5.jpg Even today, Taekkyeon game is done by throwing opponent as well as kicking. Taekkyeon-Yetbub is a full contact street fighting game which hits with any body part including punching. Taekwondo is a mix of Chosun(Korean)-Gwonbeop (started 300 years ago by Korean Muyedobotongji textbook) gym & Karate gyms. However, Korea has had many other Fight Games, particularly street fighting games called Nalparam, Taekyun-Yetbub, Flag Fight (Gitssaum), Pyunssaum ("team-fight", "side-fight"), Sibak ("opponent-hitting"). In medieval Jaemulbo book, Sibak was recorded to be also Taekyun, which would mean also being included in Taekyun. https://i.imgur.com/18PfntV.jpg https://i.imgur.com/jaTY5Zr.jpg https://mookas.com/news/11305 "시박은 '서로 치는 것은 씨름의 일종인데 역(亦) 탁견'이라고 되어 있다." Translation: "Sibak's recorded, 'hitting each other (Sibak) is a type of wrestling, this is also Taekkyeon'." "시박? 낯선 이름이다. 위의 재물보에 수박과 함께 소개되고 있는 조선 고유의 체술 이었다." Translation: "Sibak? It's an unfamiliar name. Above in Jaemulbo, it's a Korean martial art introduced together with Subak." Murayama Jijun recorded Baksi & Nanjangbaksi in 1941, which were quite different from Taekyun. https://mookas.com/news/11150 "경북군위군의 군사(軍士)훈련이었던 박시(재물보상의 ‘시박’으로 여겨진다. 1941년, 무라야마지준의 글에도 언급되고 있다. 수백명의 사람들이 팔짱을 끼고 서로 어깨로 밀어 붙여 진(陳)을 뚫는 것이다. 나중에 동네 왈패들이 신작로에 모여 난장박시라 하는 패싸움을 했었다)등이 있었다." Translation: Gyungbook military training Baksi, etc existed. Seems Sibak from Jaemulbo. 1941's Murayama Jijun also mentions this. Hundreds of people, arms locked, push each other with shoulders to penetrate formation. Later, town thugs gather on the road to do team street fighting called Nanjangbaksi." (Korean sometimes reverse the word order, like Baksi & Sibak.) Taekkyeon has both Taekkyeon & Sibak in it; there are 2 sets of games in Taekkyeon; Sibak (Baksi, Nanjangbaksi street fighting) is Yetbub. Sibak, including Nanjangbaksi recorded by Murayama Jijun, is also Taekkyeon other than the regular Taekkyeon. There are also other old names & games other than Sibak, like Gitssaum (Flag Fight, this is a fist fighting game that also represents general Pyunssaum, Sibak, Taekkyeon-Yetbub), Nalparam, etc; they are all a form of Sibak ("opponent-hitting") & Pyunssaum ("team fight", "side fight") enjoyed by Taekkyeon population historically for gaming street fight. Other than 1927's reputable newspaper's Gitssaum (Flag Fight) fist-fighting pictures, an old Poongsokhwa drawing of Pyunssaum by (most likely) Gisan Joongeun Kim also helps identifying Taekyun Yetbub's moves. https://i.imgur.com/jaTY5Zr.jpg https://i.imgur.com/8H88aDn.png https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/43/An_old_Poongsokhwa_drawing_of_Pyunssaum_by_%28most_likely%29_Gisan_Joongeun_Kim.png In this old drawing, 2 teams are made, 1 team with red shirts and 1 team with black shirts. There are 2 games going on simultaneously. 1 game is Korean wrestling Ssireum; the other game is Pyunssaum punching & kicking, giving a visual understanding of Taekkyeon-Yetbub just like 1927's Gitssaum pictures. Yetbub is pyunssaum, Sibak which is also in Taekkyeon. Like the 1895's Prize Fight record, "the combatants generally fight with their fists, but, like the French, are much given to use their knees and feet as well in the contest." https://i.imgur.com/i03RApC.png Yetbub is basically street fighting in rules & postures. In 1927's Flag Fighting & 300 years old Korean Muyedobotongji Kwonbeop, shoulder-push is observed for punching front for extra mass, strength, speed. https://pbs.twimg.com/media/DtgeqsmWwAE9by-.jpg https://i.imgur.com/jaTY5Zr.jpg As for the texture of Korean strikes, Korean uses Yong which means stacking speed & power in the entire body including arms. Even Korean Ikmyung Yang's 1692's record of breaking a stone with hand strike used Yongryuk. https://i.imgur.com/yJFsJWN.png Horizontal fist is also observed for punching in 1927's Flag Fight, 100 years old Korean street fighting, 300 years old Muyedobotongji Gwonbub/Kwonbeop. https://pbs.twimg.com/media/DtgdlTKW0AAkVDl.jpg https://i.imgur.com/18PfntV.jpg https://i.imgur.com/jaTY5Zr.jpg Taekkyeon Yetbub hits with such traits even today including in powerful punching (shoulder-push & Yong stacking speed, mass, power for horizontal-fist no-spin punching). Taekkyeon Yetbub's hand techniques have swings hitting front (& also hitting side such as jaw-breaking slap) as well as straight strikes including punching & frontal slap even today. Like Subak had Subakdaeo club to train, Nalparam also had a club to train. "1935년 7월 22일자 동아일보를 보자. [평양]지난 17일 평양서에서는 부내 창전리에서 주소부정의 현기한, 이오 외 십이명을 검거하야 엄중취조중이라는데 그들은 약 일주일전부터 기림리(산림리) 신궁앞 부근에서 부랑배 백수십여명을 모아노코 "날파람이"(망나니 짓이란 의미)를 연습하며". Translation: "Let's see 1935's July 22nd Dongailbo Newspaper. On the 17th, in Pyungyang's Changjeonli, Gihan Hyun, Oh Yi, etc 12 men were arrested and interrogated. They have gathered over a hundred thugs at Girimli (Sanlimli) Singoong's front, practicing Nalparami." https://mookas.com/news/11199 https://mookas.com/news/11664 A direct interview with Dukgi Song was recorded in Munyejinheung by Bohyung Lee, published in 1984 by Munyejinheungwon on Volume 11 Number 1 page 67 (이보형, 문예진흥 제 11권 1호, 문예진흥원, 1984.2, p.67, 이보형이 송덕기 옹에게 췌록한 내용). "누상동에는 '장칼'이라는 장사가 있어 키도 크고 힘도 좋고 '복장지르기', '가슴치기'등 택견솜씨가 좋았다." Translation: "Nusangdong had a strongman named Jangkal. He was tall & strong; he was good at Taekyun techniques particularly Bokjangjireugi (Front Stomp Kick), Gaseumchigi (Frontal Chest Slap), etc." Dukgi Song testified directly about frontal slap in Taekkyeon. "이보형이 송덕기 옹에게 췌록한 내용". Translation: "the content recorded by Bohyung Lee from direct interview with Dukgi Song." http://www.culturecontent.com/content/contentView.do?search_div=CP_THE&search_div_id=CP_THE014&cp_code=cp0406&index_id=cp04060046&content_id=cp040600460001 https://i.imgur.com/O85h9KH.jpg The same interview & the same book (by Munyejinheungwon & Bohyung Lee, 1984, Munyejinheung Volume 11 Number 1 page 67) includes Dukgi Song's direct testimony how Taekyun Yetbub broke jaw with 1 slap to the jaw as well as his testimony how Taekkyeon had frontal chest slap. There are also online Taekkyeon articles on Taekkyeon Yetbub by the official Taekkyeon organizations. https://mookas.com/news/8491 As a side note, slapping cheek is often thought as hitting side, but cheek or jaw is actually halfway frontal in about 45 degrees, not 90 degrees at side like ears. Also, hook and swing are two different motions; hook isn't really used for slapping cheek. Furthermore, sports create techniques & motions; they evolve & add motions not from everyday-life (explicit proofs have to check such). Also, whether hitting 45 degrees, 0 degrees or 90 degrees from the front, shoulder-push & Yong stacking speed, power, mass doesn't change for hand strike; the strike techniques are the same. Taekyun & Subak techniques are consistent in authenticity. Subak had swing slaps hitting front (frontal slap), straight slaps, punches already at the ancient time; Taekkyeon also had all those in the medieval times already. Straight slaps are also common in everyday-life anyway such as swatting, spanking. There are authoritative explicit proofs for Taekkyeon, Taekkyeon-Yetbub, Subak moves from the older eras by reputable sources.